What the school curriculum?
The organization’s curriculum is a document that defines the list, complexity, sequence and distribution of periods of study of subjects, courses, disciplines (modules), practice, other types of educational activities and, unless otherwise provided by the Federal Law on Education, forms of intermediate certification of students.
Thus, the curriculum of a general educational organization (hereinafter referred to as the Curriculum ) is its main document that defines:
- duration of study ( in academic years): total and for each of its levels of education;
- a list of subjects required for study at each level of education;
- the distribution of study time between individual subject areas and academic subjects;
- distribution of study time between the federal, regional and school components (for BUP-2004);
- distribution of study time between the compulsory part and the part formed by the participants in the educational process (for FSES);
- maximum volume of classroom workload of students.
The curriculum is developed independently by the organization , adopted and approved in accordance with the procedure determined by its charter. An organization may have one (single) curriculum or several curricula. Training under the Curriculum is free.
The curriculum is implemented through a schedule and is a required document. The organization is responsible for the implementation of the curriculum in full and in high quality.
How is the school curriculum formed
The curriculum must ensure that educational standards are met. Curricula of state and municipal educational institutions are developed on the basis of approximate federal or regional curricula.
The peculiarity of the curriculum for the 2014-2015 academic year is that the elementary school has completely switched to federal state educational standards (hereinafter – GEF); in a primary school – 5.6 grades can work according to the Federal State Educational Standards , and the rest of the classes – according to state educational standards (SES) or the main school works completely according to the SES; the secondary school is fully working according to state educational standards with the implementation of specialized training .
How to determine what is taught in school
To do this, you should see what subjects are included in her curriculum. The subjects (subject areas) in it are divided into compulsory (the invariant part, the federal component) and subjects determined independently by the organization (the part formed by the participants in educational relations for the Federal State Educational Standards, regional, school component, for the State Educational Standards). The organization can be organized in-depth study of a number of subjects. At the same time, more study time is allocated to higher-level subjects than to the same ones at the basic level.
The list of compulsory subjects (subject areas) ensures the unity of the educational space . Having mastered the compulsory subjects, the student should receive the amount of knowledge provided by the state standard at the basic level.
So, the required subject areas in elementary school are: philology, mathematics and computer science, social science and natural sciences, the foundations of religious cultures and secular ethics, art, technology, physical education.
Compulsory subjects, for example, in grades 8, are: Russian, literature, foreign languages, mathematics (algebra, geometry), computer science and ICT, history, social studies, geography, physics, chemistry, biology, art (music and fine arts), technology, the basics of life safety, physical education.
The list of secondary school subjects is formed taking into account the profiles introduced in the organization and consists of general and specialized subjects . Profiles can be, for example, universal, physical-mathematical, chemical-biological, linguistic, technological, etc., and are determined by the organization independently , taking into account its specifics.
Compulsory subjects in high school are: Russian language, literature, foreign language, mathematics (algebra, geometry), computer science and ICT, history, social studies, geography, physics, chemistry, biology, World art culture (MHC), life history, physical education. Depending on the profile of the school, they can be studied at a basic or profile level. For example, literature, algebra, and the beginnings of analysis, geometry, history, physical education, and life history are studied at a basic level, and geography, physics, chemistry, biology, computer science, and ICT, MHC, Russian, law, and foreign languages are chosen at a basic or profile level. language, social studies.
The organization in addition to the Curriculum carries out extracurricular activities in the areas of personality development: sports and fitness, spiritual and moral, social, general cultural, general intellectual. Classes can be held in the form of excursions, circles, sections, round tables, studios, intellectual games, competitions, organization of project activities, search routes, etc. and not only teachers of the organization, but also teachers of institutions of additional education.
In addition, in addition to the Curriculum, an organization may offer students a range of additional educational services, including paid. The choice of additional educational services, including paid, as well as participation in extracurricular activities is voluntary.
The part of the curriculum formed by the participants in educational relations, regional, school components, a set of additional educational services, training profiles, areas of extracurricular activities – determine the individuality of the educational organization, its competitiveness, and learners are allowed to form an individual educational trajectory.
How to determine to what extent the school provides students with knowledge
The volume and depth of students receiving knowledge depends on the duration of training, the number of academic weeks in a year, the duration of the academic week, the number of academic hours per week, the duration of the lesson, the content of the main educational programs.
Duration of education in Russia is established by the levels of education: in primary school – 4 years (I-IV classes), in primary school – 5 years (V-IX classes, in high school – 2 years (X-XI classes).
The duration of the school year is determined by the school on its own and can range from 34 to 37 academic weeks .. For example, in the 1st grade it is 33 weeks; in grades 2-4 – 34 weeks, etc.
The duration of the school week is determined independently by the organization and can be 5 or 6 school days. The longer the study week, the more study hours are devoted to studying the subject.