Humanity has not yet decided how to judge the life of Napoleon Bonaparte. But the truth is that France achieved enormous military power under the command of the Great Roe deer during the French Revolution, and this greatly frightened the surrounding countries, so they decided to take action. When was Napoleon Bonaparte born?
Youth of Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte was born in the current capital of Corsica, Ajaccio, in 1769, into a large family named Bonaparte . This little boy was a bit secluded and he liked spending time alone to meditate and think, although he really wasn’t a great student.
Carlos María Bonaparte faced serious economic setbacks due to some failures in his career as a lawyer, so he had to use his lands to support the family. But after he participated in a political cause in favor of his nation, promoted in Corsica, where he had to defend the small island from French rule with arms, his economy declined even more. As the revolts were unsuccessful, those who supported the side were persecuted, so Napoleon‘s mother, along with her 8 remaining children, had to flee from one place to another on the island. When was Napoleon Bonaparte born?
Napoleon‘s father, Carlos Bonaparte, took advantage of the opportunity presented to him by being part of the island’s petty nobility , and traveled to the metropolis on the recommendation of the Marquis of Corsica, General Marbeuf. Thus, he managed to prove his social position and obtained scholarships at the College of Autun for his two eldest sons, including the young Napoleon .
Little by little Napoleon was preparing, with great success in the field of mathematics, which would serve him later in his military career as part of the artillery. These mathematical merits allowed him to get a place at the Brienne Military School when he was only 10 years old . But one of the requirements to enter this institution was to learn French, since it was the one that was spoken.
Later, Napoleon managed to enter the École Royale Militaire located in Paris. There he began to study artillery, although from the beginning he wanted to learn the art of naval warfare. He finished his career in the artillery in September 1785, to finally receive the appointment of second lieutenant . At the age of 16 he was assigned to the city of Valence to be part of the garrison.
Napoleon Bonaparte’s military campaigns
After his father became seriously ill, Napoleon had to resign from the garrison and return to Corsica, until his father died. Later, they had to face the bad reputation that the paolistas had earned on the island and finally flee with their family to the city of Marseille, France. There they had to face a period of economic hardship almost to the degree of misery. But his mother became the mistress of a wealthy merchant and the situation began to improve. Later, a brother of this man, named Augustine, gave Napoleon protection and allowed him to return to the army as captain . When was Napoleon Bonaparte born?
With some help, he was promoted to artillery commander of the French army and participated in a small fight against Anglo-Spanish forces that landed near Toulon in 1793. It is in this conflict that Bonaparte makes himself known through his impressive ability to hard work, his determination when making decisions and his coldness in the heat of battle. He is credited with success, as he was the one who proposed the plan of attack, in addition to executing it to perfection. After this victory he was promoted to brigadier general .
Later, after facing certain ups and downs in his life as a military man and strategist, Napoleon would become the protagonist of the French Revolution through his military campaigns known as the Napoleonic Wars . These occurred in the following order:
- First coalition : This first war was carried out between the years 1792 and 1797 between allied countries of Spain, Austria, Prussia, Piedmont and the United Kingdom against France, with the aim of ending the republic. Napoleon was at the head of the French infantry and in less than a year he managed to defeat the allied forces of the first coalition, who were superior in number. It was Bonaparte’s first display of power and natural talent as a warlord.
- Second Coalition : This war began in 1798 against the allied forces of Russia, Austria, the United Kingdom, Portugal, the Kingdom of Naples, and the Ottoman Empire . First the campaign to Italy took place, where Austrians and Russians managed to defeat the French in several battles. However, in Switzerland the French had a different result, managing to defeat the Russian forces led by General Korsakov. After Napoleon returned from Egypt, he offered to establish peace with the allies, but they rejected him, so he prepared different attacks against Austria. He obtained the victory and managed to sign a treaty with the Austrians with which the second coalition would be dissolved. When was Napoleon Bonaparte born?
- Third Coalition : This new war occurred when Russia, Austria, and Sweden joined England to fight allied forces from France and Spain. But again the Allies were defeated by the great strategy and military ingenuity of Napoleon Bonaparte in the battles of Ulm and Austerlitz , although the English achieved naval supremacy in the Battle of Trafalgar by the feat of Vice Admiral Nelson. Then the Russians were also defeated at the Battle of Auerstedt and Eylau, which ended the Third Coalition.
- Fourth coalition : This war lasted between 1806 and 1807 between the allied forces of Prussia, Russia, Great Britain and Sweden against France. On this occasion, Bonaparte managed to finish off the Prussian forces at the Battle of Jena and take Berlin. Then, he also defeats the Russian forces and signs a peace treaty with Alexander I. This treaty brought serious consequences, since Russia was forced to surrender its dominions in Poland and become an ally of France, and Prussia also lost great part of its territory. Furthermore, Denmark and Russia attacked Sweden and forced their monarch to name one of Napoleon‘s marshals as his heir, who founded what remains the Swedish dynasty .
- Fifth coalition : This fifth coalition occurs during the Spanish War of Independence, where the Bourbon monarchy is reestablished . On this occasion, Austria and Great Britain unite against French forces in the process of Spanish independence, where Great Britain acted as an ally of Spain. Austria wanted to turn around their unfavorable situation after the defeat of the fourth coalition, but their numerical inferiority leads them to defeat against the powerful French army at the Battle of Wagram. As a result, he lost more territory than he had already lost.
- Sixth coalition : This coalition lasted from 1812 to 1814 and was made up of Russia, the United Kingdom, Sweden, Prussia and Austria, in addition to some Germanic states. Napoleon achieved an important victory against the forces of Prussia, Austria and Russia in August 1813, but it was not enough because later he had to retreat around the Rhine, where he suffered a defeat at the Battle of Leipzig. With that, the Allies invaded France and took Paris in March 1814, and Napoleon was exiled to the island of Elba. When was Napoleon Bonaparte born?
- Seventh coalition : This last coalition was formed in 1815 due to the return of Napoleon to France. On this occasion, Prussia, Russia, Austria, the United Kingdom, Sweden, the Netherlands and some German states unite against Napoleon and his troops. After gathering support and overthrowing the newly appointed emperor , Napoleon decides to attack first due to his vast outnumberedness. After certain confrontations in Ligny and Quatre Bras and also Wavre, the famous Battle of Waterloo takes place , where Napoleon is defeated once and for all by the allied forces and is exiled to the island of Santa Elena, located in the South Atlantic.
After suffering the defeat of Waterloo, Napoleon is taken to Santa Elena and is imprisoned in July 1815 where he writes his memoirs and complains about those who imprisoned him. Later, she got sick to her stomach and her illness worsened until it was believed that she had a liver disease, but it was also suspected that she had stomach cancer. However, after he died, studies have been conducted on his remains and it is believed that he was poisoned with arsenic. The truth is that he died on May 5, 1821 at the age of 51. Finally, he was buried on the island of Saint Helena, and his remains were later transferred to Les Invalides, in Paris . When was Napoleon Bonaparte born?