The story of César Augusto is still fascinating for many. In it, it is evident how he started out as just a young revolutionary and ended up as the father of ancient Rome . He established a system that turned history around. When was Caesar Augustus born?
The ideal of Rome both politically, culturally and legally, formed the identity of Europe. Few people have achieved as much influence as Caesar Augusto did. For this reason he is considered the greatest of the many emperors .
Who was Caesar Augusto?
Caesar Augustus was the first emperor of Rome and with the longest reign in history . With his mandate it was changed from the Republic of Rome to the Roman Empire . Although he rejected titles such as King and Dictator, he accepted the special title of Augustus which means Majestic or Sacred. In addition, he also adopted the title of pontifex maximus (high pontiff) and was proclaimed father of the country.
Biography of César Augusto
Caesar Augustus was born in Rome on September 23, 63 BC under the name of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian. His father also called Cayo Octavio was praetor of Macedonia and his mother was Julius Caesar’s niece. Shortly after his birth he was transferred to Velletri, where his father was originally from. At the age of 4 his father died and later his mother remarried Lucio Marcio Filipo, former governor of Syria. When was Caesar Augustus born?
However, César Augusto was raised by Julia César the youngest, his maternal grandmother . From a very young age he showed great political and military skills, so his uncle Julius Caesar decided to adopt him in 45 BC and make him his heir . He formed the second triumvirate with Marco Antonio and Lepido.
Later, the triumvirate was fragmented due to the ambitions of its creators. Finally, Caesar Augustus became the sole ruler of the Roman Empire in 31 BC. By 27 BC the senate proclaimed him emperor and received the title of Augustus.
Rise to power
When his uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in March 44 BC, Caesar Augustus was only 18 years old. Being the adopted son and main heir of Julius Caesar, young Caesar Augustus decides to go immediately to Rome to claim his inheritance. But when he arrives he meets an opponent, Marco Antonio, Julius Caesar’s most prominent lieutenant, who claimed to be the main heir.
To get power he had to fight against Marco Antonio . For this, César Augusto was supported by Cicero and the republicans of the Senate, as well as by the great financiers, with whom he was able to pay for his own army. After defeating Marco Antonio, he returned to Rome and demanded that the Senate be appointed consul. However, his request was denied because he was only 20 years old.
Faced with this rejection, he marches on Rome and takes power without the need to fight, since the troops that were sent against him decided to support him. By being appointed consul , he was granted extraordinary powers. As Brutus and Cassius were reluctant to accept it, he decided to ally himself with Marco Antonio and Lepido, his previous enemies, and form a triumvirate. However, power struggles and political intrigues lasted for 13 years. When was Caesar Augustus born?
After defeating the allied forces of the queen of Egypt Cleopatra and her lover Marco Antonio in 31 BC , Caesar Augustus became the undisputed ruler of the Roman Empire. A year later Marco Antonio and Cleopatra committed suicide and Caesar Augustus annexed Egypt to the dominions of Rome, making it the world power.
In the year 27 BC the Senate grants him the title of Augustus. From that moment on, he was renamed Caesar Augustus and became the first Roman emperor . Later, he assumed the title of pontifex maximus and in 2 BC the Senate proclaimed him father of the country.
Government of César Augusto
Caesar Augustus changed the form of government, turned the Roman Republic into an Empire . Among its main objectives was to improve the stability of Rome and its economy, which was threatened due to the large extension of territories. So he modified and adapted the institutions to the needs of the empire , instituting the Prince’s Council, made up of Agrippa and other trusted people of the emperor.
On the other hand, it went on to divide the provinces into 2 classes of territories: senatorial and imperial. In addition, he restored the tax system by establishing a direct and less aggressive service. It can be said that his government was characterized by relative honesty and economic stability.
Also, César Augusto established an effective postal service and built bridges and roads. In addition, he made reforms in the army , created a permanent fleet and founded the Praetorian Guard (a select body in charge of guarding the emperor). He finished buildings that his uncle Julius Caesar had left unfinished and restored numerous temples. Although he rejected his divinization in life, he caused the cult of the emperor to be established . When was Caesar Augustus born?
Legacy of Caesar Augustus
Their names Caesar and Augustus were adopted by all subsequent emperors as a legacy. Also, the month that was known as sextilis was renamed August in honor of its name . It established the Roman peace or pax augusta that lasted for more than 200 years.
His achievements are narrated in the document known as The Writings of Divine Augustus . This was engraved, at the request of Caesar Augustus himself, on a pair of bronze columns and placed in front of his pantheon. Later, this document has been carved in numerous buildings, many of which have survived. In addition, among his public works the most outstanding is the Augustus forum.
Death of Caesar Augustus
From his first years in power, Augustus suffered from an illness that led him to worry about choosing the next emperor. He chose as his successors his nephews Gaius and Lucius, but they died suddenly like his brother Drusco. When was Caesar Augustus born?
Caesar Augustus chose Tiberius on the condition that he should adopt his nephew Julius Caesar Germanicus. On August 19, AD 14, he died in Nola at the age of 76, and Tiberius became the second Roman emperor . On his deathbed, Caesar Augustus boasted that he had found Rome of brick and left her of marble. His body was cremated on a pyre (where the deceased were formerly cremated) near his funeral monument. Thanks to the great work he did for Rome, he was deified .