Political and military process that concluded with the separation of the State of Texas from the Republic of Mexico, in 1836. Here we will let you inform What was the last battle of the Texas revolution?
|Belligerents||Mexico vs. Texas|
The Texas Independence, also known as the Texas Revolution , was a political and military process that took place in northeastern Mexico between October 2, 1835 and April 21, 1836 .
After the Independence of Mexico , in 1821, Texas had been part of both the First Mexican Empire and the United Mexican States.
The war for the independence of Texas began after the repeal of the Mexican Constitution of 1824 , of a federal nature, and the establishment of a centralist political system .
The American settlers living in Texas disagreed with this change in status, so they began to deliberate to decide what they should do . At the beginning of these discussions, there were disagreements about the scope of the rebellion. Some only wanted the 1824 Constitution restored, while others demanded independence. These discrepancies were resolved on March 2, 1836 , when a convention of Texan delegates decided to proclaim Independence.
The emancipation of Texas was not recognized by the Mexican government, which sent an army and managed to defeat the rebels and penetrate Texas territory. Unexpectedly, the Texans defeated the Mexican army at the Battle of San Jacinto and took Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna prisoner . He was forced to sign the Treaty of Velasco , which established the withdrawal of his troops from Texas.
Enhance your reading: Battle of Boyacá day/causes/consequences/main characters
THE LAST BATTLE OF THE TEXAS WAR
The San Jacinto River witnessed the last battle of the Texas War on April 21, 1836. In little more than half an hour the Mexican army was defeated, leaving more than six hundred soldiers in the field and another seven hundred were taken prisoner by the rebel army led by Sam Houston, which the national commanders assumed in retreat.
After the Mexican victories at El Álamo, Encinal del Perdido, and Goliad the previous month, the army had begun the pursuit of rebel troops fleeing to US territory to reorganize their troops. During March and part of April, divided into several columns, it occupied important towns. But due to the slowness with which the bulk of the army would march, the general-in-chief and president of Mexico, Antonio López de Santa Anna, decided to go ahead with a troop of experienced soldiers in the hope of catching General Houston, thus beginning on the 14th of April a painful race where the Mexicans, who did not know the terrain and started with a disadvantage, took the worst part.
A week later, Santa Anna managed to catch up with the Texans and after some skirmishes with his outposts, on April 21 he decided to wait for reinforcements on the banks of the San Jacinto River, east of the current city of Houston. Assuming that the rebels were more interested in putting distance between themselves and their army, Santa Anna took few precautions. The exhausted soldiers shed their gear to sleep better.
In the afternoon, some Mexicans were awakened by the roar of the guns commanded by Houston; Others were caught eating at the ranch, with the dismounted cavalry, and the infantry without their loaded weapons. Santa Anna and his officer corps slept in their tents.
In a few minutes most of the Mexican soldiers fled in disarray. Those who were not killed or wounded in the field were taken prisoner, among them Santa Anna, who shortly after, from prison, ordered the bulk of the army to retreat south of the Nueces River, thus losing Texas. Santa Anna was imprisoned for seven months and on his return he was repudiated by the Mexicans; But the government would no longer have sufficient military forces to recover that territory and, ten years later, it would be annexed to the United States.
Causes and consequences of Texas Independence
Among the main causes of the independence of Texas the following can be highlighted:
- The continued settlement of US settlers in the territory of Texas. Those settlers came primarily from Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Alabama. It is estimated that by 1830 some 18,000 families had been established.
- The dissatisfaction of Texans with the tax policies and restrictions on new migrations, imposed by the Santa Anna government.
- The strengthening of trade between Texas and the United States, due to its geographic location and the great distance that separated Texas from the main Mexican markets.
- The promulgation of the Mexican Constitution of 1836, known as the “Seven Laws,” which replaced the Constitution of 1824, repealed in 1835. The new Constitution replaced the federal system of government with a centralized system, which deprived Texas of its autonomy politics.
- The reaction of the Texan settlers, who opposed the loss of political autonomy and restrictions on the establishment of new settlers.
- The interest of the United States government in supporting the Texas independence process and then absorbing the new independent state.
Enhance your reading: What was battle of Junín/causes/importance/characters
The main consequences of Texas Independence were the following:
- The authority of Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna was greatly weakened, as he was taken prisoner in San Jacinto and forced to sign the Treaty of Velasco . This led to his removal by the Mexican Congress and his replacement by Anastasio Bustamante.
- The American government of Andrew Jackson immediately recognized the independence of Texas.
- The Mexican Congress did not ratify the Velasco Treaty and ignored Texas as an independent state, declaring it in a state of rebellion . After which hostilities between Mexico and Texas resumed.
- Texas joined the United States and this triggered a war between Mexico and the United States that lasted until 1848. After the end of the war, Mexico was forced to sign the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo , by which it had to yield. Texas, New Mexico and the Californias to the United States. For Mexico this represented the loss of half the territory it had inherited from Spain in 1821.
- With the incorporation of the territories taken from Mexico, the United States consolidated itself as a bi-oceanic power , with outlets to the Atlantic and the Pacific.
Battles of Texas Independence
The main weapons facts of the Texas War for Independence were as follows:
|Battle of González||October 2, 1835||Texas Victoria|
|Battle of Goliad||October 10, 1835||Texas Victoria|
|Battle of Concepcion||October 28, 1835||Texas Victoria|
|Battle of the Pasto||November 26, 1835||Texas Victoria|
|Site of Béjar||October 12, 1835 to December 11, 1835||Texas Victoria|
|Battle of Lipantitlán||November 4, 1835||Texas Victoria|
|Battle of St. Patrick||February 27, 1836||Victoria from Mexico|
|Battle of Fresh Water,||March 2, 1836||Victoria from Mexico|
|Battle of the Alamo||February 23 to March 6, 1836||Victoria from Mexico|
|Battle of Shelter||March 14, 1836||Victoria from Mexico|
|Battle of Coleto||March 19 to March 20, 1836||Victoria from Mexico|
|Battle of San Jacinto||April 21, 1836||Important Texas victory|
Protagonists of Texas Independence
The main protagonists of the process that culminated with the Independence of Texas were the following:
- Vicente Filísola (1789-1850) : Spanish politician and military man, who participated in the wars for the Independence of Mexico and was one of the soldiers in command of the Mexican troops during the fight against Texas.
- Stephen Austin (1793-1836) : American businessman, known as the father of Texas Independence, as he promoted the establishment of American settlers.
- Samuel Houston (1793-1863) : American military man, politician and statesman, who commanded the Texan troops in the decisive battle of San Jacinto. He was the first president of the Republic of Texas.
- Antonio López de Santa Anna (1794-1876) : Mexican politician and military, president of the country during the war with Texas. He was taken prisoner in San Jacinto and forced to sign the Treaty of Velasco.
- Martín Perfecto de Cos (1800-1854) : general of the Mexican army, was taken prisoner by the Texans at the battle of San Jacinto.
- Antonio Canales Rosillo (1802-1869) : Mexican military and politician, general of the Mexican army during the fight against Texas and the subsequent war against the United States.
- William Barret Travis (1809-1836) : Lieutenant colonel in the Texas Army, who died during the Battle of the Alamo.