In the area of physics there are two great worlds or scales: the macroscopic and the subatomic. In each of these worlds, a different paradigm reigns : in the subatomic world, quantum mechanics governs the physical laws, whereas in the macroscopic world, the laws of general relativity prevail. Tunnel Effect
Since the discovery and understanding of quantum laws, physicists were forced to create a unified theory, the theory of everything . Thus, events that take place normally at the subatomic level cannot be conceived at the macroscopic level. This is the case with the tunnel effect.
The tunnel effect can be explained from quantum theory
If we addressed the following question: what would happen to us if we crashed an infinite number of times against the wall? Relying on our experience on the macroscopic plane, anyone would claim that it is impossible to walk through a wall. However, we cannot forget that there is another world. Thus, quantum laws state that although two electrons repel each other at a certain distance, when this one decreases the “strong” force kicks in and, taking that into account, although the probability is negligible there is a theoretical possibility that we could cross the wall.
Although this effect seems distant and unlikely, it happens constantly in the vastness of the universe .
In fact, scientists claim that such an effect allows for the brightness of the Sun and stars in general.
On the other hand, it should be noted that there are not only theoretical, but also empirical proofs, as observed in the tunnel effect microscope since 1983, with the discovery of scientists Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer, which allowed them to obtain the Nobel Prize in Physics .
Other tunnel effects
This appellation also appears in other areas. When we drive, this effect is due to the misuse of the belt safety by adopting any incorrect position and then cause various problems (fatigue at the wheel, discomfort, etc.).
Some visual pathologies cause reduced vision, as if you were looking through a small tunnel (retinitis pigmentosa has this particular characteristic ).
In the field of psychology it has been proven that in situations of stress or danger, adrenaline is activated and, consequently, the visual field creates a tunnel effect. This mechanism is purely instinctive and serves to focus the danger in a concrete way.