Some cities in the ancient world passed into posterity and their legacy lives on today. Athens symbolizes the cradle of civilization and the origin of Western tradition. Rome was the capital of an empire that changed the course of human history. Alexandria, founded by Alexander the Great, became an exponent of Greek culture and science. And the city-state of Sparta is certain immortal values: freedom in relation to foreign interventionism and the idea of community over individualism.
Historical origin and structure of society
This city-state was founded in the middle of the 9th century BC. C. The power of Sparta remained until its integration in the Roman Empire in II century; a. C. During this period the Spartans, also known as Lacedaemonians, promoted an iron system of government with strict military values. Sparta
The society was divided into three groups social: free citizens or espartiatas, foreigners living in the periphery known as perioeci and slaves , or Helots. Regarding the form of government, there was an aristocratic monarchy with two kings who were considered descendants of Heracles. The tasks of government and the administration of justice were managed by a council of the elderly or Gerúsia, formed by two kings and a group of 28 citizens elected by the acclamation of the people (the ephors). At a lower level there was a popular assembly made up of free Spartans over the age of 30. Sparta
a militarized society
The Spartans were admired and feared in their time and are still remembered today for their courage in front of the Persians where they defended the passage of Thermopylae with 300 soldiers against a huge army.
At the time of birth, some inspectors observed the newborn to see if it was in good health, otherwise it was sacrificed. During childhood, children were trained not to fear the darkness and from the age of 7 to 11 they were subjected to a severe military training known as agoge. Sparta
When he reached adolescence, men had to overcome a ritual, through which they received harsh lashes to prove their physical and mental strength. Male Spartans were programmed to be warriors and remained in the army until they were 60 years old. Agricultural or craft activities were carried out by foreigners or slaves.
Although marriage was mandatory, bisexuality and homosexuality were accepted with absolute normality. Young women showed off naked in front of men and there was a deep-rooted sexual permissiveness, to the point where jealousy and adultery were strange behaviors.