In the industrial sector, in environmental studies and in food preparation, it is necessary to properly calculate the amount of raw material that must be used so that a product is in the best possible condition. The discipline that deals with this is stoichiometry. This branch of chemistry studies the quantitative relationships in substances that participate in a chemical reaction . Stoichiometry
The word stoichiometry is a neologism created from the combination of two terms of Greek origin: “stoicheion”, which is equivalent to element and “metron”, which means measure. The fundamental principles of this scientific discipline were established in the 18th century with the contributions of the German chemist Jeremias Benjamin Richter. Stoichiometry
A simple refreshment prepared with fruit must be prepared in the proper proportions, otherwise the final product does not have the necessary quality
Preparing cement for the construction of a house also requires a certain combination of substances. These everyday examples remind us of the importance of proportions in any combination of elements. In this sense, stoichiometry is based on four key concepts: mol, Avogadro’s number, molar mass and molecular mass.
The mole is the International System’s unit of measurement for measuring the amount of substance that contains a certain number of elementary particles. Just as a basket holds a series of objects, a mole holds a number of particles. The final amount of particles in a substance is known as Avogadro’s number. Stoichiometry
Molecular mass expresses the mass of a molecule of a substance that is joined by covalent bonds or by ionic bonds. In this sense, molecular mass is the result of the atomic masses of all the atoms that make up a molecule.
Molar mass is the mass of one mole of any substance and is measured in grams/mol. To determine the molar mass of an element or a molecule, it is necessary to use the information provided by the periodic table of elements. Stoichiometry
All chemical reactions must be balanced
For a chemical equation to be balanced, the number of particles in the reactants must equal that of the products, since mass is neither created nor destroyed. As a general rule, the criterion for correctly balancing an equation is to prove the coefficients so that the number of particles of a given element is the same in reactants as in products. Stoichiometry
Stoichiometric relationships do not focus on the units of an equation, but on the equality of both sides of the particles of each element.