What is Ballotage (Second Shift)/meaning/concept/elaboration

In democratic systems, elections for president and governor have several systems or procedures. One of them is ballottage, a term that comes from the French verb batoller, which means “elected by vote” (it should be noted that in the past, the French used a different colored sticker or ballote to identify each candidate’s vote). When translating ballotage into Portuguese, we can use another name: second round.

When, in the context of presidential elections, none of the candidates presented manages to overcome the majority of votes by the citizens, the two with the highest number of votes return to compete for the second time.

This new election is the ballotage and this system was first employed in France in the 19th century

Within the European framework, this procedure is used in Portugal, Austria and France. In the context of Latin America, ballotage began to be introduced in the 1980s in most countries (in some moonlights the second round is only applied in the election for president). Ballotage is often not necessary as the election can be set in the first round because of sufficient popular support (for example, this formula did not need to be used in Peru’s 1985, 1995, and 2000 elections).

The purpose of this procedure is to reduce the number of political parties involved in an electoral process , on the other hand, it is to force political parties to establish alliances. In contrast, the second round aims to ensure that the president of a nation has the greatest possible popular support.

The electoral system in Argentina

The Argentine electoral system is governed by the Constitution of 1853 and the Sáenz Peña law of 1912. The electoral procedure changes according to the category of office, in this sense, three different systems coexist. There is a second-round majority system to elect the nation’s president and vice president.

On the other hand, there is a majority system with an incomplete list to elect national senators.

Finally, a system of proportional representation is used for the election of deputies.

In this country, voting is mandatory for citizens between 18 and 69 years old, being optional for those who are 16 and 17 years old or over 70 years old.

According to the electoral regulations , when the political option obtains more than 45% of the votes or more than 40% with a difference greater than 10% in relation to the rest of the options, the presidential candidate is directly proclaimed the winner. Otherwise, it is necessary to resort to ballotage, where the two candidates with the highest number of votes compete.

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