Heroes for some, villains for others, the hacktivist collective Anonymous has been gaining visibility in recent years for positioning itself in various political and diplomatic crises, even for those with a certain ideology , this is something that many people lack.
It should be noted that this type of collective is difficult, but not impossible given the lack of a defined structure , of commanders or representatives, as well as the underground with which they carry out their actions.
As a hacktivist collective, Anonymous follows the philosophy of freedom of information that also defends the hacker movement, even though various types of sensibilities coexist within Anonymous, although technology is a means and not an end in itself.
It can be said that the end, in this case, is a better world or, in any case, a different one. Anonymous has launched actions both on and off the internet ( Internet ) against collectives and institutions, such as the Church of Scientology, the RIAA and the North American MPAA (authorities managing copyrights), Daesh and several governments of Arab countries a in favor of uprisings like the Arab Spring.
One of his latest actions has been in favor of the independence movement in Catalonia.
Although Anonymous’ timeline is not easy to trace, there is an agreement that traces its birth to 4Chan forums in 2004. Its name comes from the sense of anonymity of those who post on this forum .
Many regular 4Chan users also organized to make jokes and take other actions, but it is likely that the idea of Anonymous came spontaneously from several individuals who posted content on these forums, and from then on it spread.
How can you be a member of Anonymous? There is no registration, not even for those who request it. People simply participate in some way, whether online or offline.
Offline actions can simply consist of participating in a demonstration, wearing the famous Guy Fawkes mask, who has become an icon of the group
On the Internet, active members of the collective provide tools for carrying out DDoS attacks, as well as other tools to protect the anonymity of those carrying out these attacks. In the forums and chat channels that meet, you can also get documentation and tools to carry out the actions.
However, this practice has provoked controversy, since in some cases the least smart members of the collective were arrested for not protecting themselves enough or because they were directly deceived. It’s easy for anyone to say it’s Anonymous…
The very nature of Anonymous’s decentralization has led members of the collective to maintain internal disagreements about their goals and actions to be achieved.
If this is already normal in organized and hierarchical entities, as it would not be in an organization that, paradoxically, is disorganized by its own will.
One of Anonymous’ signatures are videos posted on YouTube, with voices synthesized by the computer, where a person in a Guy Fawkes mask explains the group’s next goal
These “goals” are called operations and Anonymous has been doing it since its founding.
Among the best known is the Chanology Project, which started its actions to protest the Church of Scientology, in which activists dedicated themselves to blocking the church’s web pages, as well as filtering fax numbers belonging to the organization so that they could send faxes with completely black pages to use up the toners.
Operation Payback against the RIAA and the MPAA to protest attacks received by The Pirate Bay from these two copyright management entities , or #OpISIS against the Islamic State , are other operations that have become famous.
Furthermore, being a collective with no hierarchical structure, in some countries local activists started operations on their own, as mentioned earlier in the case of Catalonia.