How was Egyptian society organized location art economy

Egyptian society

Civilization that developed for 3000 years around the Nile River. How was Egyptian society organized?

Date 3150 BC C. – 1085 a. C. approximately.
Location Nile River, Africa.
Religion Polytheist .
Economy Agriculture and commerce.

The Egyptians were a civilization that developed for 3000 years around the Nile River, Africa . The evolution of their culture lasted until the appearance of the Roman Empire and Christianity .

Egyptian history is classified into three major periods: the Old Kingdom (2686 BC – 2181 BC) , the Middle Kingdom (2050 BC – 1750 BC) and the New Kingdom (1550 BC – 1070 BC). . C.).

Due to their location, on the banks of the Nile River, they were able to develop an economy and survival based on livestock, agriculture and navigation . How was Egyptian society organized?

The Egyptian civilization was characterized by being of great influence on the development of later cultures , which, in turn, influenced current cultures. His art can be seen today reflected in works of architecture, such as pyramids and monuments.

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Location of Egyptian society

The first cities of Egyptian society were established between the banks of the Nile River .

Egypt, located in northeast Africa, is bordered to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, to the south by Ethiopia and Nubia, to the east by the Arabian desert and to the west by the Libyan desert.

In addition, its territory was divided into two large regions:

  • Upper Egypt: a mountainous area located to the south, stretching from Aswan to Cairo.
  • Lower Egypt : a valley located to the north, which ran from Cairo to the Mediterranean Sea.

Religion of Egyptian society

The mythology of Egyptian culture was governed by a polytheistic cult, that is, they worshiped various gods. In addition, they implemented zoolatry, which is the worship and worship of animals.

The main deities of Egyptian culture were: How was Egyptian society organized?

Name Function
Ra God of the sun and main divinity of Egypt.
Ammon God known as the supreme creator.
Osiris God of resurrection and agriculture.
Isis Goddess of births and motherhood.
Horus God of the heavens.
Seth God of the night, who symbolized evil.
Anubis God who exercised the role of judge of the dead.
Hathor Goddess of love.
Thot Divinity of wisdom.
Beef Apis Adored animal and patron of craftsmen.

Social and political organization How was Egyptian society organized?

Social organization

The social organization of this culture was hierarchical by social class as follows:

  • The pharaoh and his family: it was believed that the pharaoh was a supreme god with powers, incarnated in a human body, and that he was indispensable to satisfy the needs of the people.
  • The nobility: landowners and government officials with high purchasing power. Only they were worthy to rule and maintain the order of the laws and their lands.
  • Priests : they were in charge of religious worship and the temple, and they were intermediaries between the gods and the pharaoh, so they enjoyed high political and economic privileges.
  • Scribes : they were very cultured men, who knew how to read and write, and had the responsibility of administering the territory, collecting taxes and keeping an inventory of the agricultural products that were produced. In general, they belonged to families with economic power and had the possibility of receiving an education at an early age. How was Egyptian society organized?
  • The viziers: in charge of the organization, administration and advice of the pharaoh. Together with the officials, they were considered people with great power and importance in society.
  • Warriors : they defended the country and fought for new territories. By their work they could aspire to obtain slaves or extensions of lands conquered from their enemies.
  • The town : of all the society, it was the group with the greater number of people. It was made up of farmers, merchants, and artisans, who had to serve as soldiers, pay taxes and tithe.
  • Slaves : these were prisoners captured in some war or conquest. In some cases, they were sold to serve all those privileged classes in the jobs that demanded more effort. They were also in charge of mummification and embalming.

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Political organization How was Egyptian society organized?

The  political organization of Egyptian culture was monarchy and hereditary , since all authority resided under the command of the pharaoh . This had a court made up of officials, nobles, priests and warriors .

In order to delegate some functions, there were the royal scribes , who were in charge of the administrative area of ​​the country.

Another important figure was the grand vizier , who served as the mediator between the pharaoh and his designated authorities. His function was to command all the services of the king.

Egyptians economy

Industry, commerce and agriculture were the source of the economy of this culture; but of all, the most important and the one that yielded the most productivity was agriculture. That is why the economy basically depended on the Nile River, where they grew silk, flax, cereals, wheat, cotton and rice .

Land and maritime means were used for trade. Papyrus , a plant used for the creation of writing material, was mainly exported , and gold and copper mines were also exploited , from which they extracted metal for the manufacture of items for export and trade.

Art in Egyptian society

Egyptian art manifested itself mainly in colossal works of a religious nature , but also funerary and symbolic . This culture made crafts and jewelry for commerce, and has also produced great works of architecture, painting, and sculpture.

The materials most used by the Egyptians were limestone, sandstone or granite, although they also used metals such as gold and copper, cedar wood , among others.

For this culture, art meant a way of transmitting the concept of tradition and they used works as a means of political and religious expression. How was Egyptian society organized?

Egyptian clothing

Generally speaking, the clothing of the Egyptians was light and comfortable. The material they used was white linen,  due to the hot climate that characterizes the region.

During the ancient period, men used to wear short skirts, which were fastened at the hips with a belt. Then, during the middle period, slightly longer skirts began to be worn, below the knee.

The ladies , at first, only wore dresses with a high waist and with two straps on the shoulders, which left the breasts in view of all. With the passage of time they began to wear suits that were tighter to the body and that covered the breasts. Towards the end, the dresses became long and much looser.

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