History

When was Cleopatra born/biography/reign/achievements/death

Cleopatra (69 BC – 30 BC)

Cleopatra is considered one of the most politically influential women of antiquity . She used the power of seduction to attract Roman leaders , who wanted to conquer Egypt to their territory, so she used her cunning to avoid it and achieve absolute power. When was Cleopatra born?

Who was Cleopatra?

The name Cleopatra means Glory of her father. She was a polyglot , and was even the only one in her family who spoke Egyptian, since her mother tongue was Greek. In addition, he spoke other languages ​​such as: Ethiopian, Arabic and Hebrew.

With regard to his physique, it is said that he did not have great beauty . He suffered from alopecia and his stature was short. However, he knew how to distinguish himself as he was very talkative . She was a queen who cared for her people and shared beliefs with the Egyptians, this gave her a lot of popularity.

Cleopatra biography

Her name was Cleopatra Filopator Nea Thea , also known as Cleopatra VII. He was born in 69 BC in Alexandria. She was the daughter of Ptolemy XII , after his death, she received the throne and, as was the custom at that time, she was married to her brother Ptolemy XIII . His mother was probably Cleopatra VI, who was known as Cleopatra V. When was Cleopatra born?

After marrying his brother Ptolemy XIII, both were in charge of the kingdom of Egypt, so ambition did not take long to seize them. This resulted in Cleopatra being dethroned. However, Cleopatra’s cunning, intelligence and good manners made her the center of attention of many men.

In 50 and 49 BC civil war broke out in Egypt. For his part, something similar happened in Rome , because of this Pompey arrives in Egypt in search of refuge, it should be noted that Pompey was an enemy of Julius Caesar .

Once Julius Caesar arrives in the Nile country, he allies with Cleopatra. After this the war exploded, where Ptolemy XIII and Pompey died. Then Julius Caesar restores the throne to Cleopatra and they immediately become lovers and marry his other brother Ptolemy XIV, whom he manipulated at will.

With Julius Caesar she has a son, Caesarion . Cleopatra’s objective was through Julius Caesar to regain power, however, this was not possible since Julius Caesar died in 44 BC Then, he returned to Egypt and fixed his interest in his successor, Marco Antonio, whom he also he would be delighted with your compliments. But first she kills her husband, who was her brother Ptolemy IV, and names her son Cesarion as co-regent.

In 37 BC he married Marco Antonio , who was already married to Octavia. Marco Antonio cedes several territories to Cleopatra, including Crete, Phenicia and Cyprus, thus allowing Egypt to recover its original limits. When was Cleopatra born?

Cleopatra’s reign

Cleopatra ruled both Egypt and other territories , including Cyprus, as an absolute monarch , that is, she has absolute power. She was the only legislator of her kingdom, in addition, she was its main religious authority, where she performed ceremonies for the deities of the Egyptian and Greek polytheistic religions .

In addition, he participated in the supervision of the construction of various temples of Egyptian and Greek gods , he also made a synagogue for the Jews of Egypt . He built the Caesarean of Alexandria in the 1st century BC. C, which was a luxurious Egyptian temple aimed at the celebration of the imperial cult of Julius Caesar. When was Cleopatra born?

He participated directly in various matters such as the famine that occurred at the beginning of his reign, after a drought, where he ordered the royal granaries to give food to the entire population. During his government he tried to impose the following:

  • Price controls , as well as tariffs and the state monopoly for some goods.
  • The types of fixed exchange rates for foreign currencies .
  • Different rigid laws that required peasants to stay in their localities both during the sowing and harvesting seasons.

Some financial problems led Cleopatra to devalue her currency. This coin was made of silver and bronze.

Cleopatra’s achievements

  • He obtained stability in his country .
  • He fought for the ideals of the great Alexander the Great .
  • He avoided famines in his village.

Cultural representations of Cleopatra

  • Statues : Among the Roman statues that are still preserved is the one that was found near the Tomba di Nerone, in Rome and which is currently in the Pio Clementino Museum.
  • Coins : Cleopatra was the only woman in the Ptolemaic dynasty to issue coins with both her name and her effigy. In addition, she was the first foreign queen where her image appears on a Roman coin. When was Cleopatra born?
  • Greco-Roman busts and heads: The sculpture Cleopatra from Berlin is exhibited in the Antikensammlung Berlin collection of the Altes Museum.
  • Paintings: A Roman painting exhibited in the house of Marco Fabio Rufo in Pompeii, Italy, there Cleopatra is represented as Venus Genetrix and Cesarion as cupid from the 1st century BC. C.

Cleopatra’s death

Gaius Octavian declared war on Cleopatra. That is why, on September 2 of the year 31 a. C, both Roman and Egyptian fleets clashed at Accio. The battle was settled with the victory on the part of Octavio, and on the other hand Marco Antonio and Cleopatra retired. Once in Egypt, both commit suicide on August 10 or 12, 30 BC. C in Alexandria, Cleopatra was 39 years old.

It is believed she was bitten by an Egyptian cobra. However, other versions say that she was poisoned using a toxic ointment. Another possible theory about her death is that she was murdered. Some scholars argue that Romano Octavio, who was her rival, allowed her to commit suicide in any way she wanted. With the death of Cleopatra concludes the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. When was Cleopatra born?

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