Argentine military dictatorship
The Argentine military dictatorship, also called the National Reorganization Process, was a civic-military dictatorship that occurred in Argentina between 1976 and 1983 .
This happened after the military coup that overthrew the government of María Estela Martínez de Perón, immediately installing a military junta that had Jorge Videla as de facto president.
By 1982 this government no longer had enough support and people began to protest, causing strong international pressure. Due to this, the junta sought to legitimize itself by initiating the Malvinas war , which was unsuccessful and ultimately led to the fall of this government.
The dictatorship officially came to an end on December 10, 1983 with an electoral process that instituted a democratic government.
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Causes and consequences of Argentine military dictatorship
The causes that influenced the start of the Argentine military dictatorship were the following:
- The death of President Juan Domingo Perón in 1974, a fact that left María Estela Martínez in command, which the military considered was not sufficiently qualified to lead the country.
- The influence on María Estela Martínez de Perón during her government by José López Rega, Perón’s secretary and minister of social action, but an ally of the military who would later carry out the coup d’état.
- The political differences , economic problems and internal problems in the government of María Estela Martínez de Perón that influenced the military to take power.
- The support and financing of the coup by the United States.
This period left various consequences on Argentine society, economy and culture, such as:
- Increase in public debt.
- Abuse of power that caused deaths, kidnappings, torture and the disappearance of thousands of people.
- Great inflation and loss of value of the local currency.
- Instability and social and legal insecurity .
- Deterioration of the rights and freedom of the people.
- The Malvinas war, in which many young people died.
- Thousands of children were stolen from their mothers.
- Emergence of the Condor Plan for the persecution of opponents and communists.
- Emergence of the clandestine resistance group called Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo
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Important facts of Argentine military dictatorship
After establishing itself in power, the military government launched a persecution in which it interrogated, tortured and executed thousands of people in clandestine detention centers.
A reorganization process was initiated in which Congress was dissolved, civil liberties were suspended, the death penalty was established for subversives, the Supreme Court of Justice was removed, the universities and labor unions were intervened and a censorship body for any media.
Many newborns were kidnapped to be delivered to military families or people affected by the dictatorship. On the other hand, a clandestine resistance group called Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo was formed, made up of the mothers, wives and grandmothers of the disappeared, with the aim of finding these babies who were taken away.
In 1981 Videla ceded the presidency to Roberto Viola, who only served from March to December, since he was removed by the military junta to give the position to Carlos Lacoste and then to Leopoldo Galtieri, who carried out the Malvinas war.
Finally in 1983, after failing in said war, elections are called and in these Raúl Alfonsín is elected, who with his form of government put an end to this dictatorship.