The ancient Egypt in its last peak period was, thanks was due to Ramses II. He was also known as Ramses the Great , he stood out for possessing qualities during his tenure as a ruler, diplomat and military man. These qualities made him the last pharaoh of Egypt. He ruled for 66 years, from 1279 BC. C. to 1213. C. When was Ramses ii born?
Who was Ramses II
Usermaatra-Setepenra Ramses-Meriamón, better known as Ramses II, was the third pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty of Egypt. In addition, he was one of the most prominent rulers in that country and was named heir to the throne when he was only 10 years old. Despite his young age, he managed to grow the economy, the administration, as well as the culture and the army of his kingdom .
Biography of Ramses II
Ramses II was born in 1300 BC , his father was Seti I and his mother Queen Tuya . Ramses II was the grandson of Pharaoh Ramses I. During his childhood he lived in Luxor, where he was instructed to be the future heir. When he was 10 years old he was named heir to the throne and commander-in-chief of the army. At the age of 14 he was already participating in war campaigns with his father, it is there that his hobby of building buildings flourished. When was Ramses ii born?
He married Nefertari when he was 17 years old , with whom he has his first-born, Amenherjepeshef . Over the years he had more wives with whom he had more children. When he was 24 years old, he was named pharaoh of Egypt, immediately afterwards he began military campaigns with the aim of securing trade routes and thus recovering the borders of Egypt.
Sons of Ramses II
There were many children that Ramses II had, however, the most recognized were those he had with the following wives:
- Amenherjepeshef : He was his first-born and main heir in the first 25 years of his reign. He was killed in battle, possibly from a blow to the side of the head.
- Meritamón : It was his fourth daughter and the first of Nefertari, Meritamón was the one who supplanted his mother in many ceremonies.
- Henuttaury : Whom she married, however, she was not promoted to the rank of Great Royal Wife.
- Ramses : His second son was considered one of the strongest men during the first part of the reign.
- Bintanat : She was his eldest daughter and he also married her, had a daughter named Bintanat II, who became Great Royal Wife of the next monarch.
- Jaemuaset : He was his male child number four, He was also known as Ramses II, he was High Priest of Ptah and he was considered the wisest man in the country.
- Merenptah : He was consigned to succeed him on the throne. When was Ramses ii born?
Both in the different statues and in the reliefs the following physical characteristics of Ramses II are shown:
- Nose : This was prominent .
- Face : Round in appearance and high cheekbones.
- Eyebrows : They were arched and slightly raised .
- Eyes : Almond- shaped .
- Lips : They were thick .
- Chin : This was small and square in shape .
Reign of Pharaoh Ramses II
After the death of his father, Ramses II is named as pharaoh of both Upper and Lower Egypt and the Sun of the Nine Arches. In the course of his reign he focused on keeping Egypt under peace , to achieve this he made it clear to his priests that it would be he who would carry out the powers, naming Nebumenef high priest, who was of his absolute confidence. When was Ramses ii born?
During his reign he made a series of important constructions . To get water for their temples, they drilled wells. Ramses II financed his projects with gold from the South and fought to spread the borders, an act that caused a confrontation against the King of Hatti, Hattusili. After several years of struggle, the first peace agreement between Ramses II and King Hattusili was signed , where they established a mutual aid pact in case they were attacked.
Legacy of Pharaoh Ramses II
He became one of the most powerful pharaohs of ancient Egypt. So much so that his figure was consolidated throughout Egypt, a fact that was reflected throughout history and continues to be so today. Among the legacies he left are:
- Military legacy
Ramses II was a very skilled military man, and proof of this was the powerful and effective army he organized. One of the most outstanding battles was the Battle of Kadesh . There he manifested his feat, where he was victorious against the Hittites. This fact was recorded in Kadesh’s poem, which has been transcribed on different papyri. In addition, it has been copied in hieroglyphs on the walls of: Karnak, Abydos and Luxor. When was Ramses ii born?
- Architectural Legacy
Among the most prominent are the majestic buildings that he had built during his reign. Its sanctuaries are considered one of the most magnificent in ancient Egypt. One of the buildings that stood out was the Ramesseum funeral shrine in Thebes and the Osireon in Abydos.
Death and tomb of Ramses II
He died in 1213 BC at the age of 90. Apparently his cause of death was due to tooth decay, which caused a strong infection in the blood. With his death the power in Egypt was greatly affected, to the point of drastically declining. Ramses II used the same decoration that his father used in his tomb, with the difference of obvious enlargements.
He was buried in tomb KV7 in the Valley of the Kings, which is located on the western shore of the River Nile and north of the Luxor Valleys. It is worth mentioning that the tomb of Ramses II is the largest in the area where it was built. It is unfortunate that due to various floods, the paintings were largely erased.
Mummy of Pharaoh Ramses II
It was discovered by Gastón Maspero and Heinrich Karl Brugsch in 1881, where his appearance as an old man was shown with a tall stature and an outstanding nose with a long face. Due to the time it was exposed to humidity, both viruses and bacteria developed, which represented a threat to its conservation. For this reason in 1976 the mummy was transferred to Paris where it would undergo a treatment to solve this problem. Today the remains of Ramses II rest in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. When was Ramses ii born?