A constitution is a legal text that establishes the fundamental norms that govern a nation.
As a general rule, most constitutional texts are approved by the people, where popular sovereignty is what underlies constitutional legitimacy.
Not a single model of constitution because each nation has its own history and political tradition
Anyway, we can mention some common features in most constitutions.
First, consensus among the various political forces is one of the general principles for establishing a constitutional framework .
The constitution involves the delimitation of power, so that the three established powers (executive, legislative and judicial) must be clearly described in their functions in the content of the constitution.
There are usually a number of items dedicated to individual freedom and recognized rights.
What is established in these democratic nations is freedom of expression and association, as well as the idea of non-discrimination on grounds of sex, race or religion.
The rule of law concept is also essential. This means that the set of human relationships must be guided by written rules and regulated by the legal area. In other words, the law regulates any activity and so every citizen has to comply with the law.
The constitution is the fundamental principle that serves as a general reference model for any standard or law.
For this reason, there cannot be any type of regulation that conflicts with what the constitutional text shows. In this context, there are constitutional courts, a court of justice whose objective is to decide whether or not a law contradicts what was established in the constitution.
A constitution serves so that the whole of the citizenry knows the basic criteria and principles by which a nation is governed. It can be said that this legal text establishes the “rules of the game” of a community: what is legal and what is not, the accepted procedures and the way in which the state is organized.
The political and symbolic value of a constitution is undeniable, as it is the established path that serves as a permanent reference for all citizens.
Generally, most constitutions are periodically reformulated, in some cases through a population referendum, by consensus, or through a system of amendments.