Architecture is the art and technique of designing a building or building environment. It is the artistic and technical process that involves the elaboration of organized and creative spaces to house different types of human activities.
Architecture is the arrangement of parts or elements that make up buildings or urban spaces in general.
This art is composed of the set of principles, norms, techniques and materials used by the architect to create an architectural space. The architect is the professional legally qualified to practice architecture.
Etymologically, the word architecture originated from the Greek arkhitekton , a combination of the terms arkhé (“main”) and tékhton (“builder” or “construction”). However, before reaching the Portuguese language, the word was absorbed by the Latin, architectus .
Each civilization, at different times in history, built architectural projects based on its own elements. The inspiration for these particularities is in the culture, tradition and way of life of the respective societies.
Modernism was a set of artistic-cultural movements that emerged at the beginning of the 20th century and which also influenced the architectural style of the time.
The buildings were inspired by the spirit of the Industrial Revolution that was reaching its peak. Architects preferred the use of iron, glass and reinforced concrete as the main materials in their works.
Industrial character designs had simple, geometric shapes and, unlike classical architecture, with little (or no) ornamentation.
The priority was on the functionality of the buildings, that is, the way in which they could be integrated into urban life and people’s daily lives.
It was also with the advances brought during modern architecture that the first skyscrapers in the world were built. This type of construction is undoubtedly one of the greatest landmarks of this architectural style.
Oscar Niemeyer, Le Corbusier and Lina Bo Bardi can be considered some of the most important architects of modernism.
Many people confuse the modern architectural style with the contemporary, mainly because they think that the term “modern” is synonymous with contemporaneity. In reality, both are different and portray different periods.
The so-called contemporary architecture consists of a set of different style references. This is a reflection of one of the most prominent features of postmodernity: pluralism .
Contemporary architects prioritize the use of natural light and, above all, the integration of construction with the environment, without causing negative impacts on the local biome.
The works generally have an irregular shape, with large windows (a means of obtaining more natural light), and the use of recyclable materials.
This style also tends to incorporate new technologies, such as the Internet of Things, creating a direct communication relationship between people and the building.
Influenced by Greek and Etruscan architecture, Roman architecture is part of the classical phase of architectural styles.
Roman architects saw the need to express through their works an idealization of beauty, but also to represent the reality lived by citizens.
Unlike Greek architecture, it maintained its constructions predominantly in urban areas. It was common to plan temples, baths, aqueducts and amphitheaters.
Greek architecture, famous for its great works, reached its peak under Pericles, especially in Athens.
The great names of Greek architecture were Ictínio and Callicrates, responsible for the construction of several monuments. The temples were the main works, built in carved stone, so fitted that mortar was not necessary.
One of the main features of this style is the use of columns . These were divided into three distinct architectural models, either by shape or form:
- the Doric, featuring columns with rigid lines and smooth capital, of which the most famous is the Parthenon, in Athens;
- the Ionic, characterized by the lightness and elegance of the columns, visible in the temple of the goddess Nike, also in Athens;
- the corinth, with the upper part (capital) ornamented in the form of leaves, found in the Temple of Apollo in Corinth, in present-day Turkey.
The heyday of Gothic architecture was between the 12th and 13th centuries. However, this architectural style was only known as “Gothic” from the 15th century onwards, by the Renaissance.
Gothic architecture flourished in the midst of the commerce revival (late Middle Ages), when cities began to grow.
The main buildings of the time were the churches, which combined some of the strongest characteristics of the Gothic period:
- pointed arches;
- vaults formed by a set of pointed arches;
- facades with three arches;
- flying buttress.
These structural innovations allowed, for the first time, buildings to have greater verticality . Therefore, Gothic cathedrals are known for their imposing vertical elevation.
In addition, Gothic architecture also placed a high value on decorative facades. It was common to use expressive sculptures, lacework, balustrades rich in details and stained glass windows / rose windows.
It had greater representation between the 15th and 16th centuries, a period in which European society underwent intense ideological transformations.
Renaissance architecture was opposed to the Gothic style (considered it very ugly). On the other hand, he valued aspects that referred to the concepts of anthropocentrism, symmetrical perfection with rigorous proportions and the “Reason Man”.
Among some of the main aesthetic characteristics of Renaissance architecture, we highlight:
- Enhancement of symmetry;
- Horizontality in form;
- Columns supported by corbels;
- Alternating pediments;
- semicircular arches;
- Appreciation of delicate and articulate features.
Considered a strong strand within contemporary architecture, the sustainable architectural style began to become popular between the 1980s and 1990s.
As the name suggests, the architects seek to ensure the sustainability of the environment , ensuring that constructions do not cause negative impacts on nature.
For this, there are some principles that characterize sustainable architecture, such as:
- Planning of the work based on all the natural surroundings (ecosystems, hydrography, geology, etc.), as well as the climatic conditions of the place;
- Reduce the energy consumption spent on the work as much as possible, prioritizing the use of clean/renewable energy sources;
- Use of ecological, recycled and regional materials (avoids the environmental damage that the transport of materials could cause);
- Ensure that the final work is integrated with the environment;
- Ensure water savings during building construction, as well as provide the appropriate infrastructure for the building to be able to save water (install timers / sensors on taps and showers, for example);
- Ensuring that the building produces energy sustainably (installation of solar panels, for example).
Symbol of Architecture
The symbol is formed from the union of a set square (a kind of ruler used for drawings with precise straight lines) and a compass . The composition of the image creates a representation of Heaven and Earth.
The position of the compass refers to the vault of heaven, while the square symbolizes the Earth and all things fixed on it.
What does the architect
The architect is the professional responsible for planning, organizing and coordinating the construction of buildings , combining aspects related to the comfort, functionality and aesthetics of the property.
It is the architect who builds the plan for a work, as well as chooses the materials and layout of the entire construction. For this, the professional needs to take into account the acoustics, maintenance, lighting, ventilation, environmental impact, among other factors that may influence the final quality of the construction.
Unlike the civil engineer, for example, the architect‘s work is directed towards the aesthetic and functional resolution of the work . On the other hand, engineering is responsible for solving structural and technical issues of the project, as well as the materials to be used.