The 12 Roman gods Equivalence between Greek gods

Roman gods

Divinities venerated in Ancient Rome. In this article we will describe the 12 Roman gods with Their attributes

The Roman gods were the divinities worshiped in Ancient Rome . Roman religion absorbed influences from the cultures it conquered, therefore, these gods were varying or changing their appearance throughout history.

During the monarchical period, its most important gods were the Triad headed by Jupiter, the most important of the pantheon, Mars, god of war and Quirinus, also a warrior god. This later derived in the Capitoline Triad made up of Jupiter, Minerva and Juno.

From the Greek influence , the Roman religion incorporated the Greek gods, superimposing some of them on their previous divinities. The 12 Roman gods with Their attributes

There were more than two hundred gods in the Roman pantheon, but there are 12 that are considered the most important.

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The 12 Roman gods

The twelve main gods of the Roman Pantheon are as follows:

Jupiter Juno Minerva
Vulcan Diana Phoebus
Venus Ceres Neptune
Mars Mercury Vesta


Main god of Roman mythology, equivalent to the Greek god Zeus, although its origin dates back to primitive populations prior to Rome’s contact with Greece.

He was the son of Saturn and Ops. According to legend, Ops hid Jupiter on the island of Crete to free him from death, as Saturn devoured his own children.

This divinity represents the sky, light and atmospheric phenomena. Along with Minerva and Juno, he was part of the Capitoline Triad, invoked by the rulers of Rome in difficult times. His symbols were the eagle, the scepter, and the thunderbolt.


Goddess of marriage and motherhood, she was one of the most important in Roman mythology.

She was the daughter of Saturn and Ops, and therefore the sister of Jupiter. She is commonly depicted sitting on a throne surrounded by peacocks, wearing a gold diadem and scepter.

Its equivalent in Greece is Hera. The 12 Roman gods with Their attributes


Goddess of wisdom and the first-born daughter of Jupiter, she was invoked by priests and philosophers. It was represented with a helmet, a pike and a shield, but also with animals such as the owl, a dragon or a beetle.

Its Greek equivalent is Athena.


Roman god of fire and son of Jupiter. It was invoked by artisans and kiln and metal workers. He was the creator of the weapons of gods and heroes. He was depicted as an old man, strong, lame, and unappealing in appearance.

Its equivalent in Greece is Hephaestus.


Goddess of the moon and daughter of Latona and Jupiter. She was a chaste goddess, associated with wild animals, hunting, and fertility. It was depicted with great beauty, along with a deer and a silver bow and arrows.

Its Greek equivalent is Artemis.

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God of beauty, plastic arts and music. He was the son of Jupiter and twin brother of Diana. He was depicted as a strong, young man and sometimes with a lyre. The 12 Roman gods with Their attributes

Its Greek equivalent is Apollo.


She was the daughter of Uranus and the wife of Vulcan. She was the goddess of love and beauty. It was invoked to find love or to regain it when it was lost. She was represented with a dove, a sword, and a seashell.

Its Greek equivalent is Aphrodite.


Goddess of agriculture, wheat and fertility, she was the daughter of Saturn and Ops. It was also associated with the passing of the seasons of the year. She was represented seated, with torches or with a snake.

Its Greek equivalent is Demeter.


God of the seas and oceans. Firstborn of Saturn and Ops and brother of Jupiter. It was invoked by fishermen and sailors to have good fishing and calm the waters. He was represented with a trident and with a chariot.

Its Greek equivalent is Poseidon.


God of war, virile power, spring and life in the fields. He was the son of Jupiter and Juno, and the husband of Venus. He was invoked by warriors and fighters to obtain victory, and he was represented with an armor, a sword, a shield and a helmet. The 12 Roman gods with Their attributes

Its Greek equivalent is Ares.


God of commerce and messenger of the gods, he was the son of Jupiter and the nymph Maya. It was invoked by merchants to make good profits. He was represented with winged sandals, a bag and the caduceus, a kind of scepter with two snakes.

Its Greek equivalent is Hermes.


Chaste goddess of the hearth, and of the domestic fire, daughter of Saturn and Ops. Its Greek equivalent is Hestia, although it is believed to be a deity prior to Greek influence.

Vesta was rarely personified, as she was invoked and symbolized through fire.

Origin of the Roman gods

The exact origin of the Roman gods dates back to the primitive peoples who went to the region of Rome, in principle with few gods, although always polytheistic .

These had a series of gods to improve crops or for rain, and that were invoked in special circumstances . While the growth and development of the empire took place, there was a deep contact with other cultures, mainly with Greek culture , and from this began the adaptation of other gods.

These gods were integrated as their own figures and had Roman names and some distinctive characteristics, but they fulfilled similar functions to their Greek counterparts.

The image that we currently know of the Roman gods was adopted in the time of the Etruscans , in the 6th century BC. C., when it began to represent the other gods with form and Roman costumes.

Equivalence between Roman and Greek gods

The following table shows an equivalence between Greek and Roman gods:

Roman god Greek god Characteristics
Jupiter Zeus Chief god and king of all gods.
Juno Hera Goddess of marriage and queen of the gods.
Vulcan Hephaestus God smith and craftsman.
Diana Sagebrush Goddess of hunting and animals.
Phoebus Apollo God of beauty and music.
Minerva Athena Goddess of wisdom.
Venus Aphrodite Goddess of beauty and love.
Ceres Demeter Goddess of agriculture.
Neptune Poseidon God of the sea and ocean.
Mars Ares God of War.
Mercury Hermes God of commerce and messenger of the gods.
Vesta Hestia Goddess of the home.
Bacchus Dionisio God of wine and party.
Pluto Hades God of the underworld.

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