Nation is a human community with certain cultural characteristics shared many times in the same territory or state . This word comes from Latin and means to be born. A nation is also a political conception, understood as the subject that resides in the sovereignty of a state.
In history, the concept of nation was created in the 18th century when the Contemporary Era began and it began to elaborate the first formulations about what a nation is and how it occurs in political movements.
These studies are related to the period of Illusionism, more precisely, the French Revolution and the American Revolution
It is often difficult to define the characteristics that constitute a nation as such, but it is assumed that the members must share the same conscience constituted as a political body differentiated from others based on their cultural coincidences. In general, these coincidences can be ethnic, linguistic, religious, traditional or historical. Sometimes they belong to the same territory.
This set of coincidences and common consciousness related to a political unit is usually called national identity.
This national identity is essential for achieving cohesion between these peoples, as it is as distinctive and representative as the national symbols themselves. It is noteworthy that the current immigration phenomena have motivated both the integration of individuals from a nation into other peoples and the tendency to accumulate in neighborhoods or other specific areas of a city or region , as if it were a defense of the cultural identity of that nation.
Therefore, the concept of nation is complex and the criteria often differ from each other. For example, the differences between pronunciations and dialects can be between two people as belonging to different nations. Likewise, it is common for two people who live in different geographic locations to be considered members of the same nation.
The term “nation” is usually confused with “State” or even with the idea of an ethnic, cultural or linguistic group, even when there is an ethical-political support
This difference is perceived when understanding that some nations, such as the Gypsy, do not have their own state (organization with defined institutions and their own borders). On the other hand, multinational states recognize Bolivia in America, India in Asia and South Africa in the African continent .
There are different types of nation, for example, liberal, romantic, socialist, fascist and national socialist
Most of the current nations of America and Europe are governed by liberal molds, inserted in the republican system with different aspects of each people. Socialist nations that persist into the 21st century include China, Cuba and Vietnam, among others. The Fascist and National Socialist models were extinguished in World War II. In certain specific cases, it is worth noting that the national identity of some peoples motivated the existence of very specific and difficult-to-define nations.
Thus, the Tuareg nation continues with its customs and language in northwest Africa, located in different states of that region. A similar consideration can be seen in the Aymara nation, in the Altiplano area, as well as in the Eskimo nation, in the Arctic regions. In these cases, the presence of shared cultural characteristics that allow individuals from these peoples to recognize each other as compatriots is clearly noted, although there are currently no national states of identification as Tuareg, Aymara or Eskimo.