In the field of botany, plants are studied from different perspectives. A concrete aspect is the development of seeds, which is called germination. This process describes how the transformation of a seed into a plant begins .
The seeds have a different appearance depending on the origin of the plant. However, they all share certain characteristics:
1) are covered by an outer protective layer called the integument;
2) inside is the embryo, which has the stem and root of the new plant;
3) the seed food is located outside the embryo, more specifically in the endosperm;
4) most seed-producing plants are dicotyledonous, that is, they contain two seed leaves inside. Germination
Most of the seeds are found inside a fleshy fruit, others are transported through water, some are moved by the action of the wind and sometimes end up in fertile soil after being expelled from the fruit that is eaten by an animal.
Seeds that have not yet germinated are in a latent or dormant state . For a seed to finally germinate it is necessary that certain weather conditions are met, as well as an adequate temperature and an excellent level of oxygen and humidity.
In most cases, seeds germinate when the land is in good condition.
Fertile soil provides the moisture and food necessary for the seed to be able to develop.
In a first stage, the seed cells absorb oxygen. From this moment on, the seed starts to release carbon dioxide. By producing digestion , stored food is converted into energy . In this way, the seed embryo swells and at the same time creates new cells. Germination
When the embryo develops, it comes out to the end of the root and then to the stem. This is where the seed sprouts. At this time, the roots grow downwards and the stalks upwards as a result of the effect of light and gravity.
Germination times and rates of seed-producing plants vary greatly depending on the species . Thus, the orchid seed can only germinate a few weeks after its maturity , while the cucumber seed may be several years before its final germination. Germination