Mexico passed through the hands of presidents who made the country decline due to their mismanagement of power and resources. Porfirio Díaz was one of them, so it became necessary to reach a solution. Treaties of Ciudad Juarez
Next, we will talk about the Ciudad Juárez Treaties and how this was a start towards a change of government.
What are the Ciudad Juárez Treaties?
On May 21, 1911 , peace agreements were signed that became known as the Ciudad Juárez Treaties, where Porfirio Díaz, the president of Mexico at the time, and Francisco I. Madero, the revolutionary leader against the government, reached a agreement after the taking of Ciudad Juárez occurred. Through this peace agreement they came to put an end to the fighting between the state and the revolutionaries who supported Madero , thus ending the first part of the Mexican Revolution.
These Treaties of Ciudad Juárez established that both Porfirio Díaz and his vice president, Ramón Corral, were to leave their positions for the month of May of that same year . For his part, Francisco León de la Barra, who served as Secretary of Foreign Relations, would be appointed interim president until the time of elections arrived. Later, Díaz went to France. Treaties of Ciudad Juarez
However, outside of this peace agreement, no social reform was being established like those previously promised by Madero. In addition, the governmental structure that Porfirio Díaz had established under his government was impressively maintained. Madero supported the idea that the courts would be in charge of resolving conflicts over land that arose, which resulted in some violent acts, especially in rural areas of the country.
Later, Francisco I. Madero arrived in Mexico City and in October of that same year he was appointed president with José María Pino Suárez as his right hand and vice president of the country.
Background to the Ciudad Juárez Treaties
In 1910, Porfirio Díaz, who was president of Mexico at the time, had held this position for several consecutive years since 1876 . At the beginning of his government, Díaz manifested an apathetic attitude about presidential re-election, but then it was not long before he realized that this was convenient for him and he even made amendments in order to stay in power. Treaties of Ciudad Juarez
This period of several years under the government of Porfirio Díaz came to be known as El Porfiriato , where although it is true that he made a great effort to increase the level of quality in areas such as science, arts and culture of the Mexican country, the truth is is that it was a time full of social problems and protests .
There came a time when these protests reached their maximum level in 1910, when he again obtained the presidency in a very doubtful way before a Francisco Madero who had become known and who he later imprisoned. Later, Madero was released from prison and endeavored to gather supporters in order to overthrow the Diaz government. This is how the Mexican Revolution began .
This entire campaign was carried out in the city of Tucson, to which he went after leaving prison. There Madero dedicated himself to proclaiming the plan against the Porfirio government, which later became known as the Plan of San Luis de Potosí. This plan also included improvements in the agrarian sector, apart from of course the end of the Porfiriato period and fair and transparent elections.
Important people in the country reacted to this plan and who later made a name for themselves in the Revolution such as Pancho Villa, Emiliano Zapata and Pascual Orozco, who also participated in riots in the state of Chihuahua, specifically in Ciudad Juárez. Later, Madero came out of exile and joined the movement against the state.
Francisco Madero, together with Villa and Orozco, took the lead in the rebellion that took place in the north. But the uprising led by Zapata in the center and south of the country achieved a broader and more productive result, which was more difficult for the state to stop. For this reason, Zapata came to win the admiration of the majority of the population who was against Porfirio Díaz , since he had become one of the best leaders in the country. Treaties of Ciudad Juarez
It was this fame and importance that Zapata came to have that led Porfirio Díaz to sign a peace agreement with Madero. For his part, Madero tried as much as possible to ensure that there was not so much violence, but rather that an agreement like this be reached.
The most immediate consequence of the signing of the Ciudad Juárez Treaties was the appointment of Francisco León de la Barra as provisional president . Later, Madero entered Mexico City to achieve power. However, it seems that Zapata was not happy with this provisional presidency of De la Barra, so he continued fighting in the city of Morelos .
On the other hand, at first Zapata supported Madero and his revolution, but then he began to dislike the fact that Madero seems to have no intention of fulfilling the plans he had promised to reform the agrarian sector or to destroy the big landowners. This led Zapata to distance himself from Madero and his plan.
Later, Zapata’s reputation was affected by the Mexico City press, which was controlled by the landowners, because they began to refer to him as a “bandit”. This made the generals in favor of defending the agreement go against Zapata and his men, considering that they were against said agreement. Thus, some fighting took place in southern Mexico. Later, in November 1911, Zapata uses the Ayala Plan to denounce Madero and recognize Pascual Orozco as the true leader of the revolution . Treaties of Ciudad Juarez
On the other hand, Madero became the object of the displeasure of some other revolutionaries who initially supported him, such as Orozco himself . This was due to the fact that Madero, after signing the Ciudad Juárez Treaties, made a gesture of reconciliation with the Díaz government. Later, he was given the opportunity to choose those who would make up De la Barra’s cabinet, but instead of electing his own people, those who supported him in the revolution, he preferred to leave the current federal system, which included the The same Supreme Court justices, the same legislators from the legislatures, and the same federal bureaucrats. In addition, he decided to give jobs to those best-class Maderistas, including his wife.
It was clear that this did not bring Madero a good name. In fact, characters such as Venustiano Carranza, Porfirio Díaz and Orozco expressed their disagreement against these actions by Madero. In the case of Orozco, who was very supportive of Madero in the revolution, he felt betrayed and debased by simply receiving a position as commander of the rural areas of the state of Chihuahua. Later, Orozco gave rise to the Empacadora Plan and declared against Madero . Treaties of Ciudad Juarez