Plan of Agua Prieta/objective/background/Consequences

Plan of Agua Prieta (1920)

From one government to another, there had been many conflicts in Mexico and the country did not find true tranquility, much less stability, and Venustiano Carranza’s government was no exception. Plan of Agua Prieta

This ruler had seized power after achieving victory in the Battle of Celaya , where he highlighted the help of Álvaro Obregón, a man loyal to Carranza. Next we will talk in this article about the Agua Prieta Plan and how it greatly affected the government of Venustiano Carranza.

What is the Plan of Agua Prieta?

The Agua Prieta Plan represented a document that was drawn up in the midst of the Mexican Revolution to oppose Venustiano Carranza’s government . This plan was declared on April 23, 1920 by Álvaro Obregón in the city of Agua Prieta, hence its name, and in it was exposed the ignorance of the executive government in some states that supported the Carranza regime. Plan of Agua Prieta

For this reason, he was displaced by other governors and also generals who were part of the Northwest Division, thus starting a new movement that came to be known as the Agua Prieta Rebellion, which became very successful. Finally, all this situation led to new elections and the establishment of a constitutional government.

Objective of the Plan of Agua Prieta

As the new movement found it necessary to establish its own norms and principles and proclaim them throughout the country, a document was drawn up by the hand of Gilberto Valenzuela and which Plutarco Elías Calles was in charge of promoting.

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In general, the objective of the Agua Prieta Plan was to give it strength and to consolidate the movement that began in opposition to Carranza’s mandate in order to overthrow him through what would come to be known as the Liberal Constitutionalist Army , an army that it would become extremely strong under the leadership of Adolfo de la Huerta. Furthermore, the political basis for this plan was to leave the presidency of the country in charge of the Sonoran trio by holding free elections.

Background of the Plan of Agua Prieta

Venustiano Carranza began his presidency as provisional, after the resignation of Victoriano Huerta. But later his government went ahead due to the conflicts originated by the Aguascalientes Convention and also the well-known Pact of Xochimilco, conflicts that ended when the capital was taken and the government that emerged later from Francisco Carvajal. Against all this, Carranza could expect an attack on his government from anywhere .

Although it is true that later, in his second government since 1917, Carranza relied on conciliation, this period was also full of conflicts. At the end of the Carranza regime, a man named Álvaro Obregón approached, willing to take over the presidency, but in his place Ignacio Bonilla was appointed as the chosen one, a civilian . As expected, this action caused an uproar and discontent in both Obregón and others against Carranza. All this without counting that governors who supported Porfirio Díaz at the time were being taken into account .

Due to this, both Elías Calles and De la Huerta met in the Agua Prieta region, taking advantage of the fact that this dispute had taken place over the decisions of Carranza and the Sonora River , in order to proclaim the so-called Agua Prieta Plan.


While the plan was being drafted, which originally came to be known as the Organic Plan of the Movement for the Claim of Democracy and the Law, Carranza and his bad decisions were taken into account, in order to accuse him of his faults and even treason towards the people and their responsibility towards them. Strange as it may seem, the plan did not reflect the dispute over territorial ownership that had originally been the cause of the protest, but the truth is that Carranza’s right to continue ruling as president was not recognized, and neither did the powers that be. they arose from his government, unless they adhered to the plan .

The leaders of the plan originally they became General Plutarco Elías Calles, Adolfo de la Huerta and, later, also Álvaro Obregón. In addition, the plan mentioned the election of a provisional president, through which elections would be held to establish a legitimate president. On the other hand, the plan also contemplated the need for a Constitutionalist Liberal Army, which would represent the armed entity that would maintain the guarantee that the Agua Prieta Plan would be carried out as planned.

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The plan in turn led to rebellions throughout the country, which became known as the Agua Prieta Revolution . These revolts became very successful, so much so that Carranza transferred the cabinet that represented the leadership of his government to the state of Veracruz, as in 1914. Plan of Agua Prieta

In the middle of the transfer, Carranza realizes that he is in danger of moving along the regular roads, since they had been the target of traps with dynamite. So he had to take a route that went through Tlaxcalantongo, in Puebla. Unfortunately, this plan did not work for him either, as he was assassinated there . His death marked the end of these riots and of course the Agua Prieta Plan itself.


In just two weeks after Carranza’s death, the country came to be controlled by those who rebelled against him, this led to most of the characters who perhaps at some time sympathized with the Carranza government, as well as characters like Obregón, De la Huerta and Elías Calles, they joined the revolt , supporting what had started as the Agua Prieta Plan.

Carranza’s death was caused by a betrayal by his army, which left him without options to defend his regime. Although there were still military chiefs supporting Carranza, they soon realized that they could not trust their troops completely, leaving them without much choice either.

As had already been established in the Agua Prieta Plan, Adolfo de la Huerta was appointed to occupy the position of provisional president of the country, until December of that same year. On September 5, the presidential elections were held, where General Álvaro Obregón won , as expected. Plan of Agua Prieta

After all this chaos and conflicts that the Mexican nation faced, they managed to find a period of calm in almost every region of the territory , since even the rebels against the Carranza government gladly submitted to the new regime of General Álvaro Obregón.

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