Among the first cultures of mankind we find the Babylonians. They were not only a culture, but also an immense empire that allowed the development of technology that transcends to the present day. Babylonian empire timeline
This ancient town along with its history nurtures our present, since many of the things they discovered were passed from generation to generation for our benefit. Let’s talk in more detail about the Babylonians and their characteristics.
Who were the Babylonians?
They were the inhabitants of the region located in the lower part of Mesopotamia , naming the city of Babylon as the capital of the region . His growth as a power was progressive to later become a strong cultural, religious and political leader of his time. Its validity as an empire dates from the year 1792 BC to 539 BC During this period its territory expanded until it occupied the cities that belonged to cultures older than them, such as the Sumerians. On the other hand, the language used by the Babylonians was Akkadian , both in spoken and written form.
History of the Babylonians
The beginning of this empire began when a group of Amorites came to the territory populated by the Sumerians , mixing with each other, they became numerous and began to inhabit the southern and central regions of Mesopotamia . Although they continued with their nomadic tendencies , their number was growing, reason why they became a danger for the great Sumerian cities. Babylonian empire timeline
Over time, the Amorites had organized into cities that were conquering more cities, as in the case of Assur. However, in approximately 2000 BC they invaded the city of Kis, adopted the Akkadian language, and by 1782 BC Hammurabi, who was Amorite, became king . Thus began a series of invasions that expanded Babylonian territory. Cities like Asus and Rim-Sim were added to Hammurabi’s domain later, expanding the boundaries of Babylon to the south. These battles won were a praise to the Amorite god Marduk, to whom they paid constant tribute.
Despite the victories of the Babylonian king, the incursions of minority peoples into his territory did not cease. Hordes of houses, Hittites and Hurrians constantly attacked them to the point of carrying out a complete takeover of the city . Due to this, for more than a century Babylon was ruled by the Casitas, who campaigned to exterminate the invading nomads and seized the territories of Egypt , Sinai and Canaan.
The great expansion of this empire came to an end when it was later conquered by the Assyrians , who constituted a whole dynasty that was characterized by advances in the art of war, improvements in the architecture of the city and the wealth of the city. herself. Finally, Babylon was conquered by Cyrus, and the Persians subdued it. Babylonian empire timeline
- 1895 BC C. – With the decline of the Sumerians, Babylon becomes a predominant city in the center of Mesopotamia. The first dynasty arises, that of the Amorites
- 1792 a. C. – Babylon becomes the dominant power in the region under the reign of Hammurabi
- 1787 a. C. – Hammurabi conquers Uruk and Isin
- 1761 BC C. – Hammurabi conquers Mari
- 1755 BC C. – Hammurabi, king of the Babylonians dominates the main cities of Mesopotamia
- 1750 BC C. – End of the reign of Hammurabi
- 1595 BC C. – Sack of Babylon by the Hittites and end of the Amorite dynasty in Babylon
- 1235 a. C. – Tukulti-Ninurta, king of the Assyrians, sacks Babylon
- 1220 BC C. – Babylon falls under the rule of the Assyrians
- 1124 a. C. – Nebuchadnezzar becomes king of Babylon and becomes independent from the Elamites
- 750 a. C. – Construction of aqueducts in Babylon
- 729 a. C. – Babylon is occupied by the Assyrians
- 710 a. C. – Sargon II conquers Babylon
- 689 a. C. – The Assyrians plunder and destroy Babylon
- 605 BC C. – Nebuchadnezzar II becomes king of Babylon, reigning over Assyrian regions
- 601 a. C. – Nebuchadnezzar II tries to invade Egypt without results
- 585 a. C. – Nebuchadnezzar II besieges Tire Babylonian empire timeline
- 575 a. C. – Nebuchadnezzar II builds the walls of Babylon and the Ishtar Gate
- 539 a. C. – The Persian king Cyrus II conquers Babylon, the Jews are liberated
The religious system of the inhabitants of Babylon consisted of the worship of a group of gods to whom they attributed qualities of nature. Such a system of worship was called polytheistic . Additionally, the Babylonians had the belief of an underworld, in which after death they suffered tormented for eternity. The only members of society who were absolved of such suffering were those members of the army who had died while performing their duty. For these reasons, when buried, their tombs were simple, without the traditional luxuries of other cultures such as the Egyptians. Among the main deities of the Babylonians it is important to name:
- Ishtar : Goddess dedicated to war and love.
- Sin : Deity to which the lunar star was attributed.
- Enil : This is how the deity who ruled the air was called.
- Marduk : This was the most important God to the Babylonians. The victories and progress of which the Babylonians were the protagonists were thanked to him.
- Sahmash : Deity that represented the sun and the power of this star.
- Anu : God who represented the sky. Babylonian empire timeline
On the other hand, the mediators between gods and men were members of the temple called priests . It was believed that they could predict the future, so they stood as sovereigns who could manage the feelings of the citizens, sometimes generating fear for the supposed feeling of the deities before the behavior of the Babylonians.