Independence of Argentina
Process of revolution in Argentine territory. Why did Argentina want independence
Independence of Argentina is called the process of revolution with which the United Provinces of the Río de La Plata managed to consolidate as a sovereign country and stopped responding politically to the government of Spain.
After the emergence of liberating ideas in Europe, the independence movements in America and the Napoleonic invasions in Spain, an ideal moment was created to carry out this independence process.
This process began in 1810, with the May Revolution , and ended in 1816, with the declaration of independence in the Congress of Tucumán . Then began a period of national organization that, due to ideological differences, led to various civil wars.
During this period, the United Provinces of the Río de La Plata went through important battles, such as the battle of San Lorenzo , the battle of Tucumán and the battle of Salta, to recognize itself as a sovereign country.
In addition, Paraguay, Upper Peru and the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, today independent countries, separated from the Argentine territory.
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Date of the Independence of Argentina
Although this was a long process that lasted several years, it can be established as the beginning of the Independence of Argentina on May 25, 1810, with the so-called May Revolution, where the First Governing Board was formed and an Argentina began to move. Independent.
The end of the process came on July 9, 1816 , when the Congress of Tucumán met to definitively sign the declaration of independence of what at that time were the United Provinces of the Río De La Plata, today the Argentine Republic.
Causes of the Independence of Argentina
The causes of the Independence of Argentina can be divided into internal and external .
- Reform measures, imposed by the government, that took power away from the Creole elites.
- The desire on the part of the Creoles, like Manuel Belgrano and other intellectuals, to form their own Republic .
- The English invasions in Argentina during 1806 and 1807 , before which the inhabitants of the Viceroyalty of the Río de La Plata had to protect themselves, which in turn generated local militias to become aware of their military power.
- The influence of the historical methods of the independence of North American territories and of the ideas imposed by the French Revolution on the Creole elite .
- The instability and political weakness in the Spanish Crown caused by Napoleon’s invasion of the Iberian Peninsula.
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Consequences of the Independence of Argentina
The process of Independence in Argentina brought various consequences:
- It was possible to create a sovereign and independent State that was called United Provinces of the Río de La Plata.
- Upon achieving independence from Spain, the Argentine territory had its own economy , which led to notable economic growth in its favor.
- Strong educational growth in which schools and universities were created and scholarships were awarded to students, which encouraged the development of culture.
- Existence of various civil wars between unitarians and federals due to the political organization of the territory.
Characters of the Independence of Argentina
Among the characters that stood out during the independence process are the following:
|Name and role|
|Cornelio Saavedra (1759 – 1829) , president of the First Board of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata who was also a transcendental during the May Revolution.|
|José de San Martín (1778 – 1850) , military and politician who was in charge of great revolutionary military campaigns during the independence process.|
|Manuel Belgrano (1770 – 1820) , military and politician, participant in the war of independence against the royalist army , creator of the Argentine flag and military leader.|
|Juan José Paso (1758 – 1833) , lawyer and politician, deputy of the Congress of Tucumán in 1816 and editor of the first constitutions of Argentina (1819 and 1826).|
|Mariano Moreno (1778 – 1811) , lawyer and politician, main promoter of the May Revolution who also participated in the First Junta.|