Armed conflict that sealed the independence of Quito, Ecuador. What was battle of Pichincha
|Date||May 24, 1822.|
|Belligerents||Army of the Great Colombia vs. Realistic army.|
|Outcome||Victory of the army of Gran Colombia.|
What was the battle of Pichincha?
The Battle of Pichincha was an armed conflict, which occurred on May 24, 1822, in the vicinity of the Pichincha volcano, now the Republic of Ecuador .
This battle was the one that sealed the independence of the department of Quito , previously called the Royal Audience of Quito from the kingdom of Spain, which in turn promoted the independence of the territory currently known as Ecuador .
In this armed conflict two sides clashed:
- The army of Greater Colombia : under the command of Antonio José de Sucre and Andrés de Santa Cruz.
- Royalist army : under the command of Melchor Aymerich, defending the colonized territories of the Spanish Crown.
The battle took place on the slopes of the Pichincha, near the town of the same name, and volcano f ue devised by strategist and General Antonio Jose de Sucre , from Venezuela, who rallied battalions and soldiers available to organize the battle against of the Spanish, led by Melchor Aymerich .
The independence conquest of Quito achieved the liberation of the provinces that belonged to the Royal Audience of Quito, under the command of the Spanish Crown . Thus, from these, the Republic of Ecuador arose.
Causes and consequences of the battle of Pichincha
Among the main causes of the Battle of Pichincha we can highlight:
- The constant attempt to emancipate the Spanish Crown by cities such as Quito, Guayaquil and Cuenca , which caused repeated political and military conflicts between patriots and royalists.
- The independence movement throughout the entire American continent , led by figures such as Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín , which motivated the residents and soldiers of many cities to promote liberating ideas.
- The Battle of Boyacá , fought on August 7, 1819, which began the independence of neighboring territories in the viceroyalty of New Granada.
- The occupation of the royalist troops in Quito was the main trigger of this battle for the independence of Gran Colombia.
Among the main consequences of the battle of Pichincha we can highlight:
- The capitulation signed by the Spanish general Melchor Aymerich and Antonio José de Sucre, in which the Spanish forces handed over their arms to the army of Gran Colombia and accepted defeat .
- With the surrender of the Spanish royalist army, the patriots were able to enter Quito victoriously and definitively declared independence .
- The department of Quito was annexed to the Republic of Colombia and in this way the neighboring cities continued to emancipate themselves from the dominion of the metropolis.
- Much of the royalists’ war material was captured, which helped continue the independence campaign.
- A total of 600 dead: 400 from the Spanish forces and 200 from the Gran Colombia army.
- The army of Gran Colombia was able to concentrate on eliminating the Spanish army from the territory , thus enabling the Independence of Peru .
Importance of the battle of Pichincha
The Battle of Pichincha caused the independence of the most important city in Ecuador, Quito.
On the other hand, it meant the defeat of the royalist forces and their surrender to the independentists, along with their weakening. The battle allowed different neighboring territories to be driven to achieve their independence .
Characters from the battle of Pichincha
The prominent characters during this battle were the following:
- Antonio José de Sucre (1975 – 1830) : main general of the Gran Colombia army. He was a politician, military man and hero of the independence of various countries in America.
- Andrés de Santa Cruz (1972 – 1865) : together with Sucre, he was one of the generals in command of the army of Gran Colombia. Prominent politician and participant in the independence movements of America.
- Melchor Aymerich (1754 – 1836) : Spanish soldier in command of the royalist army during the battle of Pichincha.