The life history of our planet presents a constant biological evolution . At the same time, the Earth itself had an evolutionary process and countless changes. To understand these alternations, a temporal division is used: the geological ages , with the Holocene comprising one of these phases.
An era is established based on an event of great importance, such as a glaciation or the emergence of an animal species .
Earth’s history is divided into four great eras: the Pre-Cambrian, the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic. In the latter, a continental structure that exists until today was formed . On the other hand, the Cenozoic era is divided into three major periods: the Quaternary, the Neogene and the Paleogene. The first is divided into two periods: the Pleistocene and the Holocene.
The term holocene comes from the Greek and literally means “totally recent”
This is a new geological phase caused by the planet’s melting process. This phase took place 12,000 years ago and represented the beginning of a new climate era. In this sense, climate changes have been accompanied by a series of effects on the environment : stable levels of CO2, extinction of animal and plant species, advance of forest mass, drastic changes in flora, emergence of smaller mammal species, as well as the growth of trees, for example, oak and coniferous plants. These effects even produced others: changes in the migratory processes of herds and the rise in sea level.
Within the holocene emerged the first human civilizations
In addition to climate change and its impact on the environment, during the Holocene era the human species took a qualitative leap. Thus, human beings began to organize themselves into ever more advanced social groups .
With a warmer and more stable climate, men no longer needed to change locations constantly. Consequently, nomadism was gradually being abandoned and a sedentary period began. With this important advance, a definitive step was taken towards the creation of organized cities and the formation of the first civilizations (the word civilization comes precisely from the word city).
From the point of view of archeology, the Holocene is divided into the following periods: Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic and the Metal Age.