Topography is a scientific discipline that studies the earth’s surface, all geographic features defining their situation and location on Earth, both in rural and urban areas. To describe the characteristics of a given space, the way is through a map. Thus, topographic maps reflect the scale on a plane through a series of lines and points the elevations of a given area.
Information on a topographic map
The main information on a topographic map is that which refers to the relief of a territory (for example, the mountains, valleys and plains of a place). Knowing the relief is important in two ways: to identify the geological agents modeled over time and, on the other hand, because it is a factor that influences human activities (transport, infrastructure and agriculture). In this way, the relief must be well represented within a topographic map.
In order for the representation of a territory to be correct, the topographic map adds relief descriptions in a plane. Differences in altitude are described using the so-called contour lines. Its dimensions are also reflected (the altitude of a point in relation to sea level), as well as specifying information about rivers, roads and other unevenness.
The fundamental element of a topographic map is constituted by the geographic coordinates , that is, every point of a map is located through its latitude and longitude. A very important aspect is the legend, which is an explanation of all the descriptive symbols of the cartographic representation: population nuclei according to the number of inhabitants, different land uses, water masses, etc. Normally, contour lines appear brown and each feature appears with a specific color and symbol. Topographic Map
Note that two types of scale are used: numerical and graphic. For example, a numerical scale of 1:10000 expresses that one centimeter on the map corresponds to 10000 centimeters or 100 meters in reality . The graphic scale is a straight line divided into segments that indicates the actual longitude of a segment drawn on the map.
Finally, every topographic map is represented through the so-called contour lines, these are the lines that join points of the same altitude. In other words, it would be to cut the relief in horizontal planes and the intersections that form are projected onto a certain plane. Topographic Map