What is Superpower definition/concept

A nation is considered a superpower when it maintains political and economic hegemony in the international context. In other  words, the country that has this recognition maintains a leadership position in the group of nations on the planet.

There are several superpowers throughout history

2500 years ago, Greek civilization maintained a position of strength in relation to other peoples. Its power was based on a more advanced  culture, as well as a maritime fleet and a mighty army.

In the following centuries, the Roman Empire attained the status of a world superpower. Among the factors that explain its hegemony, we highlight the following: a well – organized army, an extensive network of paths for all its territory and that system legal and administrative very advanced for its time.

From the 16th century onwards, Spain was the most powerful nation on the planet. It dominated large territories in America and Europe and controlled the main shipping routes. Later, France and Great Britain became the new superpowers in the international order.

From the end of the 20th century, the United States became a world superpower, but in recent decades China has been leading a meteoric rise

After World War II, the United States expanded its economic and social model in various regions of the planet. However, it shared the lead with another superpower, the  Soviet Union. When the Soviet regime was dissolved in 1991, the United States became the country with the most weight in the international context.

At the same time, the Chinese communist model evolved into capitalism and today China is a new superpower. In fact, analysts quarrel over who is really the greatest superpower on the planet: China or the United States.

China is a superpower for several reasons:

1) it has sustained economic growth based on the transformation from a communist system to a market economy (it is estimated that China’s GDP surpasses the United States in 2020);

2) creation of areas open to foreign investment;

3) cheap labor;

4) progressive increase in exports;

5) the government maintains control of some strategic sectors, such as heavy industry, the railway network and the energy network ;

6) is a tourist power (in 2010 it was the third most visited country in the world);

7) in its foreign policy it does not interfere in the affairs of other states, as well as promoting peaceful coexistence and mutual benefit.

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