In the sphere of knowledge there are many types of disciplines. Some are based on principles elaborated by reason (eg math and logic) and others are practical skills such as gardening or crafts . There are areas that are based on creativity (the different arts), as well as scientific disciplines, such as physics, biology, astronomy and oceanography. Some branches of knowledge are not pure sciences, but use scientific tools such as pedagogy , sociology and archeology. Scientism
On the other hand, there are unique disciplines, as they have a scientific appearance, even so they are questioned for their methodology and not demonstration of their claims and principles (in this case, we speak of pseudosciences, such as astrology , feng shui, numerology and psychoanalysis).
The general panorama described above generates a discussion about the role of science in the whole of knowledge
For some, there is only one to know absolutely reliable and valid science.
On the opposite side, there are those who believe that science is a valid construct in many of its applications and approaches, but that it should not become an absolute dogma that serves as an alibi to discredit other sources of knowledge. Those who defend this last thesis use the term scientism or scientism in a pejorative way. Scientism
Arguments against scientism
There are many types of knowledge that do not have a scientific methodology and therefore lack validity, such as ethics, literary criticism or historical interpretation.
Science is not simply a set of neutral, objective laws and procedures. In fact, scientific knowledge can serve perverse and morally despicable interests.
The supposed superiority of the pure sciences over the rest of the disciplines emphasizes a contempt for everything that is not strictly demonstrable. For example, it is not possible to provide definitive evidence for the role of dreams in mental processes, but it is very surprising that scientists categorically disprove those trying to understand the role of dreams in mental processes.
The debate in the field of medicine
Medical professionals use the scientific method for treating illnesses. Thus, they prescribe an iron supplement after verifying that the patient has low levels of this substance or advise a change in diet as soon as they have the results of tests for cholesterol levels.
In a nutshell, the procedures employed are based on objective evidence accepted by the entire scientific community. Scientism
Although conventional medicine accurately demonstrates its effectiveness, there are people who distrust medical knowledge and disparagingly classify it as scientist
Those who have this perspective on health and disease believe in the effectiveness of other alternative procedures: urine therapy, psychic surgery, biomagnetic therapy, or Angel therapy (a guardian angel that protects us from disease).
Medicine does not cure all diseases and is subject to human error as well as possible abuse, but the various alternative disciplines have an even greater weakness: there is no conclusive evidence to demonstrate their effectiveness. Scientism