The process by which soap is obtained is known as saponification. Soap can be achieved by adding burnt oil and caustic soda, then mixing both substances for a few minutes to form soap.
The chemical process of saponification
Soap is formed as a result of the union between a fatty acid and a strong base, thus producing an acidic salt. This means that the soap used to remove dirt and grease paradoxically comes from a fatty substance.
The burnt oil is a triglyceride, on the other hand, it is combined with three molecules of caustic soda or soda ash. From there, a glycerol is formed, that is, a soap. Saponification
At the moment, it is not usual to make homemade soap, but it was a few decades ago. If we want to make our own soap, we must use the following ingredients: used oil, distilled water, a little salt, caustic soda and some essence.
Mix the water with caustic soda in a plastic container, stir these ingredients with a spoon until they are completely dissolved . Let it cool for about an hour. Then it is recommended to heat the oil for two minutes. Afterwards, the soda obtained is introduced into a container, the hot oil is slowly added and both substances can be mixed.
When the mixture is consistent, add salt and stir again. Once the substances acquire a full consistency, the previously heated essence can be added for a few seconds. Saponification
The substance obtained is placed in a mold (for example, in a milk brick cut at the top). Once the mold is filled with the mixture, it is allowed to cool for 24 hours. Finally, you can break the brick and extract the soap from the mold. Obviously, depending on the type of mold the soap will have one shape or another.
A substance over 3000 years old
Historically, soap is over 3000 years old. In its origins, it was made with a mixture of wood ashes and some type of animal or vegetable fat . So that the soap had a better odor, aromatic oils were added.
The Romans were the first to use soap for personal hygiene.
In the Middle Ages the first soap manufacturing centers appeared in Europe. In the 19th century, industrial soap began to be manufactured as we know it today. It was the French chemist Louis Pasteur who realized that the use of soap prevented infections and consequently reduced mortality rates. Saponification