The prostate is a structure that is part of the male genital system . It is located just below the bladder, around the urethra, which is the channel where urine exits. When its cells become malignant it produces the tumor known as prostate cancer.
It is the second most common type of cancer in males, estimated to affect one in 10 men, especially over 65 years of age. In relation to their mortality is not as high, most patients with prostate cancer live for many years with this injury and usually die from other causes.
Why does it occur?
Prostate cancer is due to the presence of malignant cells in the prostate, which multiply and grow uncontrollably. This causes the prostate to enlarge and infiltrate neighboring structures, especially the urethra and bladder.
Although there is no consensus on its exact cause, it is clear that there is a familial predisposition to prostate cancer.
How does it manifest?
In its early stages, this tumor does not produce any discomfort and can be discovered in a urological examination through a clinical examination called a rectal examination.
When the lesion affects neighboring organs, there are manifestations that accompany this tumor, mainly due to the difficulty in urinating, in getting up at night to urinate, in the repetition of urinary infections, in pain and in the emission of bloody urine.
How is your presence confirmed?
This tumor may be suspected by the presence of a palpable nodular lesion in the prostate when performing a digital rectal exam or by the presence of elevated values of prostate antigen in the blood when performing a laboratory exam known as prostate specific antigen (total PSA and PSA free).
The diagnosis is confirmed by observing a prostate fragment obtained from a biopsy through a microscope. This study can differentiate a malignant lesion such as cancer from another condition that can enlarge the prostate known as benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Biopsy allows the identification of determining factors for treatment, such as the extension of the tumor and its degree of aggressiveness .
Once its presence is identified, it is necessary to carry out imaging exams to assess its extension to other tissues, such as magnetic resonance imaging and gamma gram bone.
What is your treatment?
Surgery is an important part of the treatment of prostate cancer as it allows the removal of the gland and the tumor, especially when the latter is small in size or has not yet spread to neighboring organs.
Treatments such as radiation therapy and hormone blocking therapy are reserved for patients with malignant disease , where the tumor has already spread to other organs, a phenomenon known as metastasis.
Hormone therapy is based on the fact that prostate cancer is stimulated by the presence of the male sex hormone testosterone, and an important part of its treatment is blocking its production , a process known as chemical castration .