It is the branch of medicine dedicated to the study of various disorders that affect the rectum and anus. The digestive tract is a complex structure formed by several segments arranged in continuation of the others. In the final part is located the colon or large intestine, which is distributed in the abdomen rising on the right side, then follows a straight path in the upper abdomen and finally a descending portion runs along the left side. Proctology
In the lower left part of the abdominal cavity is located the final portion of the large intestine, called the sigmoid, which follows a dilation which is the rectum. At this level, fecal feces are deposited before being expelled to the outside through an orifice corresponding to the anus.
In this way, we see that the rectum is a storage structure, which, because it is occupied by feces, gives rise to certain reflexes that produce the desire to evacuate. The anus contains a sphincter formed by a muscle that can be controlled by the will and so that we can delay evacuation despite the desire. Proctology
Main disorders in the field of proctology
The rectum and anus area can be affected by several problems, especially changes in the consistency of the stool.
In conditions such as constipation, characterized by the presence of hard stools, the expulsion of these residues may require an increase in pressure in the abdomen, which can cause congestion of the venous blood vessels and lead to the appearance of hemorrhoids. These are nothing more than the dilation of the veins in the rectum similar to the varicose veins that appear in the legs. Proctology
Hardened stools can also cause the edges of the anus to rupture during expulsion, causing an injury known as an anal fissure.
Other conditions that can occur in this area are infections, the development of abnormal pathways that communicate the rectum with other structures in the pelvis, called fistulas, and rectal cancer. All of these conditions produce a common symptom: rectal bleeding.
Proctology is a subspecialty of surgery
This means that after the doctor completes his undergraduate studies, he needs to specialize in general surgery and then become a proctologist. Proctology
The proctologist, who is the specialist in this area, usually performs the evaluation of the rectum and anus using instruments that allow us to visualize its interior, such as a rectoscope.
Most conditions that affect this area can be treated with procedures such as surgery, which allows eliminating hemorrhoids, repairing fissures and fistulas, draining abscesses and even performing the resection of a malignant or benign tumor. Proctology