The term phylogenetic is formed by the union of the Greek word phylon, which is equivalent to race, plus the root gen which refers to the idea of origin or birth. Thus, phylogenetics is the scientific discipline that studies the origin of living organisms and the relationships between them.
Fundamental idea of phylogenetics
It is a branch of biology that studies the evolution of species globally. The objective of this course is to know the evolutionary history of living organisms. To know the phylogeny of the species, it is necessary to determine the similarities and differences in their morphology, anatomy and embryology. Phylogenetics
The evolution of species is a very slow process and for this reason scientists use a series of assumptions to establish how the morphological diversity of all organisms occurred.
Experts in this discipline explain the evolutionary relationships of all species through an explanatory model known as a phylogenetic tree. This type of scheme allows us to understand the family relationships of species in the realm of evolution. Phylogenetics
The phylogenesis of the brain
The first marine creatures already had the biological germ of a brain, as their simple nervous system had specialized cells capable of transmitting electrical messages. In more complex higher animals a more sophisticated neural system was developed and with it the brain in the animal kingdom was formed .
When fish turned into amphibians and in turn into reptiles, the brain took a qualitative leap. In this sense, dinosaurs had a reptilian brain and so all reptiles and mammals are heirs of this brain structure . Phylogenetics
Mammals have developed a new structure, the cortex.
With the evolutionary appearance of the cortex, mammals could already face the demands of the natural environment and improve their chances of survival. In this process of evolutionary transformation, the hominid brain incorporated a new structure, the neocortex. Phylogenetics
With it it was possible to acquire new knowledge and store data. The first brain with these characteristics appeared five million years ago and weighed just over a pound. Over time, hominids learned to use tools and for this reason homo habilis is referred to.
Later, homo erectus appeared and fire was discovered. Approximately 100,000 years ago, man as we know it today, homo sapiens, emerged.