We call perception the sensory capture of a phenomenon, whether internal or external. Thus, the phenomenon of perception is linked to the function that within the organism has the so-called five senses: touch, smell, sight, hearing and taste. It is basically a way that living organisms tend to know the environment at a primary level.
The first perception channel to be considered is vision, which is based on capturing light where objects reflect through the eyes. Thus, there are receptor cells called cones and rods. Cones are primarily concerned with day and color vision, while rods are concerned with night vision. This information is transferred via the optic nerve to the brain to be decoded.
The second channel to be considered is the touch, which allows evaluating the qualities of objects such as temperature , softness, etc. It is located in the skin, an organ that contains a multiplicity of nerve receptors that transform the various types of stimuli received into information to be interpreted by the brain. Perception
The third channel is the taste, which consists of receiving chemical information from the food that enters the mouth through the taste buds; these are found in the tongue, a muscular organ. Nerve impulses are carried from the sensory endings to the spinal cord, passing through the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves.
The fourth channel or sense is the smell, in charge of the perception of odors. This is located in the nose, more particularly in the olfactory cells of the pituitary, which receive chemical stimuli from volatile substances, ie, given off from vapors.
Finally, the last channel to be considered is the sense of hearing. This is basically the capture of acoustic waves that expand through space until reaching the eardrum; this organ vibrates and its vibration reaches a set of small bones that amplify the vibration until it affects the cells that transform the waves into information, which are sent to the auditory nerve and then to the auditory cortex for its decoding.
The phenomenon of perception has been widely discussed in the field of philosophy, particularly in the so-called epistemology. In fact, it has always been a problem to determine the limits that perception has to know the effects of a given phenomenon, limits that are necessary in all its dimension when it comes to elaborating scientific theories.