The neuron is a type of cell belonging to the central nervous system whose differential feature is the excitability of its plasma membrane, which allows not only the reception of stimuli, but also the conduction of the nervous impulse between the neurons themselves, as well as with other types of cells, such as the muscle fibers of the motor endplate.
It is composed of a reception area called dendrite and an emission area known as an axon or neurite. These very specific morphological characteristics are the ones that support its functions
They are cells with a great capacity to communicate accurately, quickly and even over long distances with other neurons or other cells, whether they are nerve, gland or muscle, being responsible for transmitting electrical signals, called nerve impulses, in order to carry out this intercellular communication . Nerve impulses travel through the entire neuron, starting the path through the dendrite until reaching the terminal buttons, which after all make the connection with other neurons, muscle fibers or glands, as the case may be.
However, this connection is called a synapse and in this contact the transmission of the nerve impulse actually occurs.
It opens a chemical discharge that generates electrical current in the membrane of the sending cell, once the impulse reaches the end of the axon, the neuron secretes a protein (neurotransmitters, responsible for inhibiting or exciting the action of the other neuron) that is deposited in space synaptic, this is the intermediate place between the transmitting and receiving neuron .
The three components of the nervous system, sensory, integrative and motor, are formed and interconnected by neurons
Thus, a stimulus captured in some sensory region delivers information that will be transported through the neurons and analyzed by the integrating element, which can also elaborate a response to it if desired, in addition to the signal that will be conducted through the neurons. This response is always performed through a motor-type action, such as muscle contraction and gland secretion.
Neurons are highly differentiated cells, so they cannot be divided until they reach maturity, a small portion that forms a minority.
The number of neurons in the brain depends on the type of species to be treated, for example, the human brain has approximately one hundred billion, a worm 302 and the fruit fly 300,000.