There is no single way to understand numbers, as they exist of different natures (such as decimal , fractional, irrational and others). This way of understanding numbers is relatively modern, as in antiquity the use of numbers was basically used to count elements, but over time, the numerical domain was applied to more complex contexts, as shown by commercial activity. Natural Numbers
Thus, the numbers understood in its most basic view are the natural numbers (1,2,3,4,5…). Some mathematicians consider 0 to be a natural number, but there is no general consensus on the part of the entire mathematical community.
Mathematical representation and basic operations
Natural numbers are represented by the capital letter N. To indicate that it is a set of natural numbers, they are grouped within a key and may also include the infinity symbol, as these numbers are unlimited and never ending.
Natural numbers allow you to perform some mathematical operations such as adding, in which the final result is always another natural number.
However, in the case of subtraction, it is not always possible to obtain as a final result another natural number, for example, 3-4 is equal to -1, which is an integer. Two natural numbers can also be multiplied and the result is another natural number.
Similarly to subtraction, in division the result is not always another natural number, for example, if you divide 15 by 2 the result is 7.5, a number that is not natural. As can be seen, natural numbers serve a limited number of operations.
other types of numbers
In addition to the set of natural numbers represented by the letter N, there are other ways to know the numbers. Integer numbers are represented by the letter Z and are all natural numbers in addition to their corresponding inverses (1e -1, 2 and -2, 3 and -3…). The rational numbers are those written in a fractional way, ie, with a ratio (e.g., 7/4 = 1.75). Irrational numbers are the opposite of rational numbers, that is, those that are not written in a fractional way, such as the square root of 2 or the number Pi.
Simply put, it can be said that natural numbers are the most basic and primary. Its properties are insufficient to solve all mathematical calculation problems, for this reason, other ways of understanding numbers were created.