The myocardium is a particular type of muscle that, despite being striated, has unique and essential characteristics to be able to fulfill its pump function .
The heart muscle , known as the myocardium, is distributed in such a way that it gives rise to four cavities, two superiors and auricles and two inferiors or ventricles. In turn, each side of the heart constitutes a pumping system independent of the opposite side, which is why we speak of a right heart and a left heart.
There is another group of muscles located within the heart, known as the papillary muscles. These structures join the ventricles by their base or lower part, their upper part ends in a vertex from which a series of filaments that join the atrioventricular valves, with the function of acting as a system that guarantees complete closure when contracting. to the ventricles so that blood passes through the aorta and pulmonary artery, preventing the retrograde flow of blood to the atria. Myocardium
Particular characteristics of the cardiac muscle
Despite corresponding to the striated type group due to its microscopic structure , this tissue is unique to the heart and has a series of characteristics that allow it to do what no other structure does: work continuously and permanently without stopping or resting. before birth until the moment of death.
- – It is able to maintain its activity continuously thanks to a natural pacemaker.
- – It has a strong reddish color due to the large amount of myoglobin, a protein related to oxygen transport.
- – Receives a large blood supply.
- – Heart cells have a greater number of mitochondria than other cells in the body.
- – The heart is a tissue capable of obtaining energy from any substrate, that is, glucose, ketone bodies, fatty acids, lactate or pyruvate. Myocardium
- – The greatest amount of energy produced in the heart’s mitochondria comes from the oxidation of fats.
- – Heart cells have interconnecting unions, this is responsible for muscle activity, such as the contraction performed by all cells in each cavity simultaneously.
Disorder that affects the heart muscle
The heart muscle requires a continuous supply of oxygen in order to function normally. When the arteries responsible for this supply are clogged with cholesterol plaque, the effective diameter of the artery decreases, compromising the flow of blood and, therefore, of oxygen and nutrients. This is the main cause of disorders such as heart attacks. Myocardium