Morphine is a substance used since ancient times for pain relief. It is an opioid-type medication prescribed for the treatment of severe pain.
Morphine is obtained from a plant, the poppy. Nowadays, there are synthetic derivatives of greater potency together with the drugs known as opioids.
This was a well-known natural remedy in ancient times. There are reports of its use in Sumeria, in the year 4000 BC. C. The trade took it to Egypt and Greece and from there it received the name “opos”, which means juice. Homer cited its use in Odyssey and used it as part of his arsenal to soothe pain, although it was Galen who defined poppy as a pain-relieving medicine. Its use continued, but it was not until 1806 that it isolated its active principle, naming it Morphine, in honor of Morpheus, god of sleep.
How is it used?
It can be used orally or through injections. In turn, pill preparations can be quick-release, with the ability to provide immediate relief in up to 4 hours, or extended-release with which it achieves an effect that can last up to 12 hours.
At the start of treatment, quick-release formulas are prescribed that can be used every 4 hours. Depending on the total dose that a person needs to take in a 24-hour period, the daily dose is calculated and divided into two so that you have an extended-release formula.
Its use is associated with several adverse effects.
This medication, in addition to being an analgesic, is capable of producing nervous system depression and people start to feel drowsy, disorientated and confused.
A common effect of medications of this type is their gastrointestinal effect, mainly related to dry mouth and constipation. In general, people receiving treatment with morphine and its derivatives use medication to facilitate evacuation, it is also recommended to consume foods rich in fiber.
Another effect that can be presented and that is more serious is respiratory depression. It is characterized by a decrease in lung function that can lead to respiratory failure and consequently to death if not properly treated.
It has a high additive potential
One of the main problems associated with prescribing morphine is its abuse.
This medication produces tolerance, which means the need for increasingly higher doses to achieve the same effects, which is associated with experiencing a state of euphoria, taking the risk of certain situations such as addiction.
In addition to psychological addiction, it can produce physical addiction . This is manifested by symptoms such as changes in body temperature , nasal and eye discharge, restlessness, tachycardia, nausea, stomach pain and fluctuating emotional state.
Its use must be supervised by a physician.
People who use morphine or another opioid should be evaluated by a doctor who should also monitor their treatment.
As can be seen, the use of this drug brings several adverse effects and health risks that can be avoided with the use of correct doses and intervals, as well as by adopting measures such as opioid rotation, which is based on alternating different types of medications. , which reduces the risk of addiction and dependence, ensuring effective and sustained pain relief.