The basic structure of words
A word can be understood from a minimal structure called a monem. Monemes are divided into lexemes and morphemes. The lexeme or root is the invariable part of the word that contains its meaning (from the lexeme bread, other words such as baker or bakery can be created), whereas the morpheme is the variable part of the word added to the lexeme to complete its meaning. Morpheme
Thus, the word ball is composed of the lexeme bol- and the gender morpheme “a”; the word neighbors is formed by the lexeme vizinh-, plus the gender morpheme “o” and the number morpheme “s”. This means that words always have a semantic core that provides a meaning and a categorical core that provides the category of the word (whether it is a verb, a noun or adjective). The semantic nucleus is the basis of the word, while the categorical nucleus is constituted by the affixes (the word’s gender and number, among other affixes).
Morphemes are classified into two groups: grammatical and derivatives
Grammatical morphemes refer to gender (male or female) and number of words (singular or plural). Derived morphemes in turn have the following division: prefixes and suffixes. The prefixes have the function of preceding the base of the word (for example, the prefix anti, plus the term aerial form the word anti-air). Suffixes are intended to bring information to the root of the word (for example, the suffix ista allows you to create words like operator or sprinter). Morpheme
Morphemes, morphology and linguistics
The use of suffixes and prefixes allows knowing the internal structure of words or morphology. The discipline that studies morphology is linguistics . Consequently, knowledge of morphemes is located within morphology. Morphology literally means “word shape”. This means that the object of study of morphology is the word, that is, its internal structure and variations.
By illustrating this issue with a simple example, we can explain the word cats. This term is composed of three morphemes: “gat”, “o” and “s” (“gat” expresses the idea of animal, of feline; the “o” refers to the male gender and the “s” refers to several individuals of this species ). Morpheme