Monosaccharide, also known as simple carbohydrates or simple sugars, are molecules that cannot be hydrolyzed. This means that its decomposition into smaller molecules is not possible.
Its main features
These substances have four main characteristics: they are soluble in water, they are white, have a crystalline appearance and are sweet (their sweetness makes them known as sugars). Despite being a sugar , it cannot be confused with cooking sugar, since this substance is a disaccharide known as sucrose (it is formed by two molecules of monosaccharides).
On the other hand, by having an aldehyde or ketone group, these substances can react with certain reactives. Furthermore, monosaccharides have the ability to provide energy .
The molecules of these substances are formed by a chain composed of three to seven carbon atoms (for example, glucose has six carbon atoms). Anyway, the empirical formula for all monosaccharides is as follows: (CH2O) n.
In chemistry terminology , all monosaccharide names end with ose, such as fructose, glucose, ribulose, or galactose. All these simple molecular structures are divided into two large groups : aldoses and ketoses (the former are also called polyhydroxyaldehydes and the latter polyhydroxyketones).
Glucose is a monosaccharide that expresses the amount of sugar we have in our blood.
This parameter of biochemistry is important to a good state of health. When glucose levels are correct, all the tissues in the body function properly. On the contrary, high blood glucose levels cause diabetes.
To prevent diabetes it is possible to adopt some measures: avoid a sedentary lifestyle, not being overweight and lead a healthy life. On the other hand, medical treatments to control diabetes are based on strategies to reduce high blood glucose levels. Thus, hypoglycaemia occurs when the blood sugar level is below normal (the typical symptoms that accompany hypoglycaemia are tremors, sweating and loss of concentration).