Microbiology is understood as a science that studies small living beings, whose dimensions remain hidden from the human eye. That’s why the exercise of microbiology is applied by a methodology that serves to study microorganisms.
This last point has a decisive influence on the late development of microbiology in relation to other sciences in the same field, since for a long time there was no availability of adequate tools to reach the following levels of study .
Almost at the beginning of the 17th century the microscope was invented, even so microbiology would have a slow advance and would last for the next 150 years, time dedicated almost exclusively to carry out the first microbial morphological descriptions. Furthermore, it was at this time that the first taxonomic divisions also emerged, trying to fit the newly discovered microorganisms into some of the already known natural systems.
In any case, the definitive establishment of microbiology would not come until the end of the 19th century, a time of several secular controversies (which had a high philosophical and religious charge), but which would be pursued practically from its beginning.
Again, technical advances would mark this turning point, although in this case, more than the development of new devices, it was the debugging of existing experimental techniques such as sterilization, pure cultures, the improvement of the microscope, among others, that provided the birth of modern microbiology.
Contrary to what one might think, microbiology is not a science whose application is limited only to the area of medicine. The study of bacteria, microbes, fungi and other microorganisms are applied in various sectors and with very different objectives.
In the food industry, fermentation is used in the production of dairy products such as yogurt or in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages. In agriculture , it is applied to the study of the relationship between certain plants and microorganisms, just as this science is used for issues arising from the use of natural resources and the environment . Bearing in mind that this is an underdeveloped discipline compared to other scientific areas, it is very likely that with the increase in its practical applications, microbiology will extend to other areas.