Linguistics is the discipline that addresses the study of man’s ability to communicate through language . However, it constitutes a systematized set of knowledge and presents a specific object , so it can be said that linguistics is a science. In this way, given the complexity of analyzing and quantifying the communication processoral through all its breadth, linguistics must be excluded from the exact sciences. In fact, their considerations are immeasurable at times. However, they have made important advances in many of their observations and that have allowed them to know about dead languages. During its period of existence, linguistics was characterized by presenting diverse theories and points of view that were intended to explain the different aspects of human language; which are not necessarily contradictory, but which are sometimes complementary.
A reference work regarding linguistics as a science is the “Course in General Linguistics” by Ferdinand de Saussure. This work was developed by his students through their class notes. Saussure‘s main contribution was to establish bases for the systematization of language study. Thus, he managed to explain that language is a social phenomenon, where a given linguistic community shares a series of elements and forms of use through shared rules. These elements are linguistic signs, an arbitrary relationship between a signifier and a meaning of a mental nature that is socially shared. Saussure referred to these concepts at the beginning of a theoretical route known as structuralism, a trend that even transcended the field of linguistics in its way of analyzing phenomena.
We can say that another great linguistic contribution was made by the linguist Noam Chomsky. If Saussure emphasized language as a social phenomenon, for Chomsky it was as a genetically determined phenomenon. In fact, from this perspective, all men share the faculty of a genetic language, and this faculty becomes concrete from a particular language. This means that all the languages in the world share a series of common elements, a kind ofsyntax that everyone respects and that everyone has with certain variants. This contribution was of great importance in linguistics and is vigorously extended to the present day, albeit with some variations. In fact, Chomsky himself has been reformulating his model on several occasions and perhaps this process will continue in the future.