It is a disorder of the endocrine system characterized by slow metabolism . The same is due to decreased thyroid hormone production or disorders in its use. Hypothyroidism
This is a more common condition in women. It is often associated with other metabolic disorders, especially metabolic syndrome.
Hypothyroidism can be congenital
Although most cases occur in adults, it is possible that this disorder is present at birth, in fact, it is the most common endocrine disorder in newborns and may be present in one of every 3,000 children who are born alive.
Hypothyroidism is mainly due to the lack of a mineral in the mother’s diet : iodine. Other causes include defects in the formation of the baby’s nervous system and the use of certain medications during pregnancy, such as amiodarone indicated for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias; metamizole, which is a known pain reliever used to reduce fever, as well as in radioactive iodine therapy. Hypothyroidism
In the case of newborns, it is difficult to make the diagnosis, since children with hypothyroidism are usually slow and sleep a lot, something that can go unnoticed in a newborn. Some symptoms such as constipation, difficulty in feeding, development of a herniated navel, shortness of breath and a slow pulse should make you suspect this condition.
When hypothyroidism remains untreated over time, there is an irreversible failure in the development of the nervous system, leading to cretinism, characterized by mental retardation. For this reason, a blood test is routinely performed within the first 10 days of birth to see if the thyroid gland is producing thyroid hormone correctly. This test is done by drawing blood from a peripheral vein or making a small puncture in the baby’s heel.
in the adult
It is characterized by a decrease in the production of thyroid hormone or a deficit in its use. This causes the pituitary to produce a hormone called TSH that stimulates the thyroid to produce its hormones, known as T3 and T4. It is also possible that failure to produce thyroid hormone affects thyroid stimulation by the pituitary, or by the hypothalamus of the latter. Hypothyroidism
This disorder leads to a deceleration of metabolism that may initially occur without significant manifestations. As you progress, symptoms such as weight gain, fatigue, tiredness, drowsiness , cold intolerance , leg swelling, constipation, menstrual irregularity, dry skin, hair loss, difficulty concentrating occur . These patients also show changes in their laboratory studies, especially anemia and elevated cholesterol levels.
In the case of adults, the failure to produce thyroid hormones is due to both a deficit in iodine intake and the development of antibodies that produce an inflammation of the thyroid called thyroiditis. This process causes the progressive destruction of the thyroid and affecting its functioning.
Treatment of hypothyroidism depends on its cause
Many countries use the salt iodination process as a strategy to ensure a normal supply of iodine to the population.
In the case of hypothyroidism not related to iodine deficiency , it is necessary to stimulate the thyroid gland with the hormone levothyroxine, which is given orally in the form of tablets that must be taken one hour before breakfast, as prescribed by the doctor.
The dose used is variable and will depend on the levels of TSH in the blood. Once treatment is started, TSH measurements must be performed at least once a year to adjust the treatment.