The Gregorian calendar is universal and entered into force in the year 1582; before that the Julian calendar was used. As everyone already knows, the annual distribution of time in most countries is organized into twelve months and runs from January to December. Some months have 30 days, others 31 and February 28 or 29 depending on whether it is a leap year . From this system , the 365 days of the year correspond to the Earth’s orbit around the Sun. However, the Jews used a completely different system. Its main feature is the distribution of time according to the movements of the Moon, while the Gregorian is based on the movements of the Sun. Hebrew Calendar
The beginning of this calendar began when the people of Israel left Egypt
Thus, the beginning of the exile is the beginning of the year and this issue is expressed in the Old Testament , more specifically in Exodus 12:2. This month was known by the Hebrews as the month of Abib (currently this month is called Nisan).
The ancient Hebrews started the day when the sun rose over the horizon and not from midnight. This system is also based on the Old Testament, especially on Genesis 1: 5.
Hebrew Calendar Features
This calendar is based on what the ancient Israelites called the lunar cycles. According to Hebrew tradition, the lunar cycle is part of the time that the Moon revolves around the Earth and this movement lasts 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes and 3 seconds. This measurement of the lunar cycle was a mathematical calculation introduced from the fourth century onwards and established an improvement on the original Hebrew calendar.
The Hebrew calendar has months of 29 days and others with 30 alternately, consequently, in the annual lunar cycle there are a total of 354 days
Like the Gregorian calendar, the Hebrew includes the leap year (this month is added every 19 years to coordinate the solar and lunar cycles).
There are a total of twelve months a year and each one has a spiritual meaning (for example, the last month of the year is for the examination of the individual conscience ; the first month of winter is associated with hope, as with the arrival of winter, heavy rains are expected for the plantations).
If we take the year 2016 as a reference, the universal calendar corresponds to the Hebrew year 5776. Nissan is the name of the first month for the Jews and corresponds to the month of March or April of the Gregorian calendar, depending on the year. During this month, Pésaj or Jewish Passover is celebrated, a journey that commemorates the liberation of the people of Israel from the period of slavery in ancient Egypt.