The fall in precipitation ends on the earth’s surface and causes the formation of small streams and rivers. However, a part of the rain is filtered in the soil and little by little they produce fissures and cracks that gradually form underground water sources or rivers. The areas that store water are aquifers. The planet’s fresh water reserves are stored in them. What is Groundwater?
The capture of this resource is of fundamental importance for human supply. The water found underground is normally drinkable and thanks to it a third of humanity can drink it. It also has agricultural, livestock and industrial uses. Its use has a special value in periods of drought.
In recent years, some aquifers have been recharged through artificial systems to maintain the water table at adequate parameters. What is Groundwater?
Natural dams with inlet and outlet pipes
For rain to penetrate the soil, it must have a permeable type of rock, that is, that this rock allows the passage of water. When the accumulation of water is no longer possible because the rock is impermeable, an aquifer forms .
Aquifers are spontaneously formed reservoirs. Every aquifer has a large water inlet and an outlet, as well as a specific storage capacity. The position input originates from the infiltrated water. The output or discharge takes place in the form of springs or sources. Storage depends on two factors: the porosity of the land and its crack. What is Groundwater?
Not all aquifers are the same. Some are porous and formed from loose materials such as sand or gravel. Cracks are formed through firm rocks that are consolidated over the circulating water. On the other hand, the degree of water pressure is a determining factor in the typology of the aquifer. What is Groundwater?
The water from the aquifers is used in agriculture and livestock. However, when the amount of water extracted is greater than the natural recharge, an overexploitation of the aquifer occurs.
Contamination of aquifers
Groundwater can also be contaminated by external agents. The source of the contamination is quite diverse: sanitation systems, landfills, industrial discharges, fertilizers used in agriculture or natural pollutants such as arsenic. Polluting substances reach aquifers through an infiltration process . What is Groundwater?
In rivers, water pollution is not so serious, as there is a constant renewal of water. On the other hand, contaminated groundwater has a very slow flow and this circumstance aggravates the levels of pollution.