Each individual has unique and unique fingerprints on the pulp of their hands. This study that deals with everything related to the identification of fingerprint forms is known as fingerprinting. The purpose of this course is to identify individuals.
The Origin of Fingerprinting and Fingerprints
The creator of this discipline was the Argentine police investigator Juan Vucetich, who at the beginning of the 20th century introduced his system to the police force in Buenos Aires. His research led him to establish four basic types of fingerprints or fingerprints, which were represented by numbers and letters (the capital letters for the thumbs and the numbers for the rest of the fingers).
Thus, the nucleus of a thumb has an arc shape in the pulp corresponding to the letter A, with a whorl assigned to the letter V, an inner loop for the letter I and an outer loop for the letter E. The other fingers have a numerical identification according to the core of the finger pulp. This system is one of the most used internationally, although each country has a specific pattern in fingerprint identification.
For example, the Spanish fingerprint system is based on the Oloriz model, based on the delta of the thumb (adelto if the finger has no deltas, dextrodelto when the deltas are on the right, sinistrodelto when the deltas are on the left and bidelto when there are two or more deltas in the fingerprint).
Fingerprinting as an identification technique
This area is based on three general principles:
1) The designs formed by the papillary ridges on the pulp of the fingers have the characteristic of being perennial, that is, they remain throughout the individual’s life. Fingerprints never change, so they are immutable.
2) There is an infinite variability of shapes and designs and with an appropriate classification system it is possible to identify any individual.
3) The appearance of fingerprints presents three types of impression:
– The patterned impression that is printed on plastic materials, fresh ink, grease or ointment;
– Visible impressions;
– Latent prints, which are difficult to perceive in direct light and which are found on glass, mirrors, polished furniture or glasses.
It should be noted that fingerprints are not preserved on certain objects, such as unpolished wood, turned metals, manipulated objects or human skin.