Etiology is an extremely used term in the medical field to refer to the cause of a particular phenomenon or disease . This word has its origins in Greek, derives from the word aitiology, which means “to give reason to”. In this way, the concept etiology corresponds to giving reason to a fact.
Its main forms are as follows
Infectious . It refers to the origin of diseases in relation to the colonization of a certain structure by microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi.
Tumor . Tumor etiology corresponds to symptoms and manifestations related to the presence of tumors, whether malignant or benign.
Autoimmune . A less common cause of disease is autoimmune disorders, in which antibodies are developed against certain tissues, leading to their deterioration. Disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and lupus are autoimmune diseases.
Degenerative . Some diseases are a product of tissue wear, this is related to processes such as aging. The main degenerative disease that affects people is arthrosis, a disorder that damages the cartilage that lines the joints.
Environmental . This group covers diseases that occur as a result of exposure to physical, chemical and biological factors that can affect health. These include intoxications, poisonings, radiation injuries, as well as exposure to cold or heat.
Post-traumatic . A common cause is trauma resulting from falls or blows, these have consequences directly related to its severity.
Professional or occupational . The postures and efforts made by a person while performing their work can cause injuries, which are known as occupational diseases. This etiology also includes accidents at work.
Although the medical sciences have great advances that allow for the diagnosis of diseases based on their symptoms, it is possible that in some discomforts or disorders it is not possible to find their cause or origin despite being completely adequate and studied. In these cases, we speak of an unknown etiology.
In general, disorders of unknown etiology are termed idiopathic. An example of this is the appearance of diseases where the cause of their origin cannot be established. Here are some of the most relevant disorders, such as type I diabetes, lupus, autoimmune hepatitis and various types of chronic diarrhea .