The UN establishes the known Human Development Index or HDI to classify the nations of the planet. This index includes a series of parameters on the overall quality of life , such as GDP per capita, the level of literacy in the adult population and the average age of the deceased. These indicators are the concrete expression of three fundamental criteria: a long and healthy life, an adequate level of knowledge and a decent standard of living. Developing Country
From the data finally obtained, it is possible to classify nations into three large groups : the developed, the underdeveloped and those in the process of development.
Developing countries according to the 2017 UN report
The first UN HDI report was presented in 1990 and has been published periodically since then.
If we focus on developing countries, we can name a few: Brazil, Turkey, South Africa, Mexico, Poland, India and Argentina. All of them have this category because they present some structural problems, such as social inequalities, pockets of poverty and high crime rates, despite the evident economic progress they are experiencing. Developing Country
From the UN’s point of view, developing countries share some characteristics: a per capita income above $8000 per year, an economy in transition, uneven technological development, a high public deficit and a high rate of unemployment.
A questioned category
It can be said that these countries incorporate aspects of the first world and, at the same time, other aspects of the third world. We must take into account that the concept of human development is very debatable, since the economic situation is an extremely important factor, but also corruption, institutional fragility and citizen security .
If we take Mexico as a reference, it is a nation with evident economic advances and, at the same time, with very worrying crime rates. Developing Country
Institutions such as the World Bank , the International Monetary Fund or Oxfam consider that the category of developing countries used by the UN is inadequate and should be replaced by another denomination that more objectively expresses the well-being of nations.
Along this line, some deficiencies in the data provided by the UN are mentioned: economic data are not sufficiently significant, parameters related to institutional development of nations should be incorporated and national data should be replaced by regional data. Developing Country