At the beginning of the 20th century, art underwent a period of profound transformation. Several currents emerged that aspired to a renewal of aesthetic standards, the avant – garde movements . One of these movements was Dadaism.
Dada emerged in Switzerland, more specifically in Zurich, in 1916. Since then, some intellectuals and artists from all over Europe have been exiled to Switzerland due to World War II. These frequented the bars and cafes of the time and expressed all their disenchantment with social reality , especially aimed at traditional and conventional art . In this context, Dadaism arose and thus the main place dedicated to this movement of the spectacle was the Cabaret Voltaire.
Dadaism initially had two proponents, Hugo Ball and Tristan Tzara
However, Dada magazines and pamphlets collaborated with artists of different tendencies. This movement was present in various artistic manifestations: in poetry, theater, music, painting.
The fundamental idea of Dadaism contrasts with everything that has already been established.
In fact, they fight the positivists’ idea of reason, oppose bourgeois art, admit of no aesthetic convention and reject the idea of beauty. Dadaists contrast with everything because they claim the absolute creative freedom of the individual . His intellectual approach is based on saying no to others when everyone says yes and vice versa. The purpose of this posture is to question reality in every way and not take anything for granted because the truth is also questionable.
Dadaism expresses attitude towards life. It is a rebellious and nonconformist attitude. The Dada artist mocks art and reason. At the same time, it defends creativity , fantasy and the absurd.
Several artistic currents inspired the provocative and non-conformist spirit of Dadaism
For some artists, this proposal has been a permanent source of inspiration and some critics consider Dadaism as anti-art by definition.
The originality of the concept Dadaism has provoked all sorts of debates about its authentic original meaning: for some it amounts to the characteristic whispering of babies; for others it comes from Dada, which in French means wooden horse; and there are still those who defend the idea that it doesn’t mean anything.