In physics, Coulomb’s law is used to calculate the force between two charges that are at rest. This is a fundamental law in the field of electricity and magnetism. At the same time, it is completely connected with another, Newton’s law of gravity.
The statement of the law and its meanings
Its principle is as follows: the force exerted between two different electrical charges is simply proportional to the multiplication of both charges and, at the same time, it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance separating them. Coulomb’s law
Coulomb’s law formulation means that when there are two charges with the same sign, they repel each other, that is, they move apart. On the contrary, when there are two charges of different sign, they both attract. Thus, the electrical force of attraction or repulsion depends on two factors: the intensity of the electrical charge and the distance between them. Coulomb’s law
It should be noted that Coulomb’s law applies only to rest charges within a certain homogeneous and isotropic reference system (for the medium to be homogeneous it must have the same properties in any of its parts and to be isotropic it is necessary properties do not depend on the measurement direction).
The 18th century and electricity
Electricity is a physical phenomenon related to the interaction between two particles, protons and electrons. The attraction between them makes it possible to explain all kinds of phenomena. In this sense, in the mid-eighteenth century, scientist Benjamin Franklin demonstrated that thunderstorm rays were actually a form of electricity in nature. Coulomb’s law
French physicist Charles Coulomb (1736-1806) was the first scientist to quantify electrical forces and the results obtained were incorporated into the law that bears his name. This law is considered a fundamental principle of electromagnetism and electrostatics .
Throughout the 18th century, there were several theoretical and practical advances related to electricity:
the first electrical capacitors, the invention of the lightning rod or Coulomb’s own invention to accurately measure the force between electrical charges. These and many other advances were the basis for the development of the Industrial Revolution .
Coulomb’s invention to accurately determine the intensity of electrical charges is known as a torsion balance and his unit of electrical charge is called a colomb (a voltium). A coulomb is the amount of charge carried by a current of one amp for one second.