There is no single definition of the term constructivism, since it is a type of current that can be presented in the world of art, pedagogy , philosophy, among other areas. Anyway, in all fields, constructivism is related to the idea of creating or building.
Constructivism in Russian art
In the art world, constructivism is related to the avant – garde movements of the early 20th century. One of the artistic manifestations of constructivism took place in the Soviet Union with the victory of the Russian Revolution in 1917. This movement was particularly developed in architecture and sculpture, where its main characteristic was abstraction, the use of geometric shapes and aesthetic functionality . Russian Constructivist art uses pure lines and simple materials. Furthermore, this movement contrasts with other avant-garde currents, more particularly Futurism and Cubism. Futurism refers to the vanguard of fascism and constructivism represented the revolutionary ideals of the Soviet Union.
Constructivism as a pedagogical model
Pedagogy is the science that studies learning with the purpose of providing solutions to the educational phenomenon. Constructivist pedagogy has the following characteristics:
1) Opposes learning based on behaviorist thoughts,
2) Emphasizes the student’s active mental processes, from which he must build his own intellectual reality . The student must be “the builder” of learning and not simply a receiver of knowledge.
3) The student’s role in the learning process has to be active and participatory, as constructivism as a pedagogical model establishes that in this way each student can develop autonomously as an individual .
Constructivism as philosophical thought
Knowledge is not acquired through a simple accumulation of data, but through mental constructions that the individual elaborates. On the other hand, from a philosophical point of view, constructivism establishes that it is not possible to know life as it really is, but that it can be known through its external manifestation. This idea of constructivism is based on Kant’s philosophical thought , which defended the impossibility of knowing the true reality, since we can only know the appearance of things.
This view had consequences on later philosophical and scientific thoughts that presented a constructivist component: the theory of relativity, the uncertainty principle, the theories of learning in psychology or the idea of scientific revolution not as a cumulative issue of data and general theories, but rather as an intellectual paradigm shift in the scientific community.