The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The brain in turn constitutes the brain, cerebellum and brain stem. The peripheral nervous system is made up of the various peripheral nerves that emerge from or reach the spinal cord and are distributed throughout the body.
All the organs that make up the central nervous system are contained in a protective bone structure formed by the skull and spinal canal, in addition, they are covered by three membranes known as meninges, between which it creates a space called the subarachnoid, which is the place where the cerebrospinal fluid circulates. This fluid is made up of several elements, mainly proteins, ions, glucose and blood cells belonging to the immune system, whose function is to allow the exchange of various substances between the nervous system and the blood, even providing cushioning and mechanical protection. Central Nervous System
In the central nervous system, two types of substance can be distinguished due to their coloration: white matter and gray matter. Gray matter is formed by the bodies of neurons, while white matter corresponds to the extensions of neurons called nerve fibers.
What differentiates the human being from the animal
The brain is the main organ of the nervous system, its superficial part or cerebral cortex is what differentiates man from the rest of animals. It contains the areas that allow the association and integration of higher mental functions, as well as regulating other functions such as motor skills, sensitivity and perception of information from the organs of vision and hearing, the ability to speak and understand what is heard, the ability to perform mathematical operations, identify laterality and our ability to relate, more deeply to systems related to emotions, memory, hormonal control, regulation of circadian rhythms or biological clock, temperature and the appetite. Central Nervous System
the bases of the cerebellum
The cerebellum is a structure fundamentally related to motor coordination , posture and balance, and is involved in the precision of fine movement.
The brainstem, also called the brainstem, is formed by the midbrain, the pons and the spinal bulb, regulates the autonomous or involuntary functions, allows the state of consciousness and is the place that integrates a series of reflexes which include position and Head posture with the position of the eyes, also allows the passage of both ascending and descending pathways between the brain and cerebellum with the spinal cord.
Nutrients, Oxygen and Precautions
The central nervous system receives nutrients and oxygen through four arteries that reach after passing through the perforations of the skull. In the anterior part are the two internal carotid arteries, in the posterior part are the vertebral arteries that form a circuit known as the Polygon of Willis. Central Nervous System
The cerebral arteries can be the seat of diseases such as arteriosclerosis and aneurysms, which are the main causes of strokes and cerebral hemorrhages, respectively. The venous circulation of the brain is different from the rest of the body, there are veins and also cisterns through which the blood circulates back to the heart, they are known as venous sinuses, as they leave the skull and pass to the neck veins.